Use of proton pump inhibitors in dialysis patients: a double-edged sword?
Large cohort-based studies have shown that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are linked to rare but multiple and varied secondary events when used in the general population. Although clinicians accept the negative effects of PPIs on renal function, there is a lack of available data regarding the potential consequences of their use by dialysis patients in whom the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding is quite high. This review aims to highlight the risks and benefits of PPIs use in dialysis patients. To summarize, the benefit on the reduction of high digestive bleeding seems certain, but without any beneficial impact on overall survival. The impact on quality of life seems to be significant. The data on the occurrence of peritonitis during PPIs treatment are very contradictory. There is evidence regarding the occurrence of hypomagnesaemia in haemodialysis patients with PPIs; which may lead to increase bone fragility. New data show an increased cardiovascular risk and even a risk of death linked to the use of PPIs on dialysis. Several mechanisms of IPP toxicity are advanced to explain these findings.