Treatment with a β-2-adrenoceptor agonist stimulates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and improves glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in mice with diet-induced obesity.
Chronic stimulation of β2-adrenoceptors, opposite to acute treatment, was reported to reduce blood glucose levels, as well as to improve glucose and insulin tolerance in rodent models of diabetes by essentially unknown mechanisms. We recently described a novel pathway that mediates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells via stimulation of β2-adrenoceptors. In the current study we further explored the potential therapeutic relevance of β2-adrenoceptor stimulation to improve glucose homeostasis and the mechanisms responsible for the effect.C57Bl/6N mice with diet-induced obesity were treated both acutely and for up to 42 days with a wide range of clenbuterol dosages and treatment durations. Glucose homeostasis was assessed by glucose tolerance test. We also measured in vivo glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, insulin sensitivity by insulin tolerance test, plasma insulin levels, hepatic lipids and glycogen.Consistent with previous findings, acute clenbuterol administration increased blood glucose and insulin levels. However, already after 4 days of treatment, beneficial effects of clenbuterol were manifested in glucose homeostasis (32% improvement of glucose tolerance after 4 days of treatment, p