Treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus and offspring early childhood growth.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with fetal overgrowth and certain treatments are associated with an increased risk of macrosomia. However, there is limited data about the long-term effect of GDM treatment on childhood growth.Cohort study of 816 women with GDM and their offspring delivered between 2009-2012. Childhood height and weight through age 3 were collected from the medical record and Z-scores and body mass index (BMI) were calculated. We assessed the association between GDM treatment and childhood growth using linear mixed modeling.Treatment was divided into medical nutritional therapy (MNT) (n=293), glyburide (n=421), and insulin (n=102). At delivery, birthweight, z-score, and BMI were higher in the offspring of women treated with either glyburide or insulin compared to MNT. However, weight, z-score, and BMI were similar among all offspring at 6 months and 1, 2, and 3 years of age. After controlling for covariates, there were differences in the weight z-score (p=0.01) over the 3-year period by treatment group, but no differences in weight (p=0.06) or change in BMI (p=0.28). Pairwise comparisons indicated that insulin was associated with more weight gain compared to MNT (0.69 kg, 95% CI 0.10, 1.28, p=0.02) and glyburide was associated with a trend towards lower weight z-score compared to MNT (-0.24, 95% CI -0.47, 0.003, p=0.05).Despite growth differences detected at birth, we observed no meaningful differences in childhood growth from 6 months to three years among treatment groups, including in the offspring of women with GDM treated with glyburide.