Tobacco Smoke Exposure, Respiratory Health, and Healthcare Utilization among U.S. Adolescents.
Tobacco smoke exposure adversely affects respiratory health. However, the effects of exposure on adolescents without asthma are not well known.To what degree are biochemically measured and self-reported tobacco smoke exposure associated with pulmonary function and healthcare utilization among U.S. nonsmoking adolescents?and Methods: We analyzed 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (N=2,482). Tobacco smoke exposure was assessed with serum cotinine and self-reported home exposure. We built multiple regression, logistic regression, and Poisson regression models, depending on the outcome.Approximately 3% of adolescents had high cotinine (3.00-15.00ng/mL), 35.7% had low cotinine (0.05-2.99ng/ml), and 10.9% had home exposure. Adolescents with high cotinine had significantly lower FEV1% (M=97.4,SE=2.09; β=-8.99, 95%CI=-15.64,-2.33) and FVC% (M=97.4,SE=2.06; β=-8.42, 95%CI=-14.74,-2.11) than adolescents with no/minimal cotinine (<0.05ng/ml; M=101.0,SE=0.45; M=99.9,SE=0.46, respectively). Adolescents with high cotinine were less likely to have a past year healthcare visit (aOR=0.57, 95%CI=0.38,0.88), but more likely to have an overnight hospital stay (aOR=4.82, 95%CI=2.58,9.00), and at increased risk of having a higher number of overnight hospital stays (aRR=4.04, 95%CI=2.27,7.21). Adolescents with low cotinine were less likely to have a healthcare visit (aOR=0.84, 95%CI=0.71,0.99), but more likely to have an overnight hospital stay (aOR=4.82, 95%CI=2.58,9.00) than adolescents with no/minimal cotinine. Adolescents with low cotinine were at increased risk of having a higher number of healthcare visits (aRR=1.06, 95%CI=1.02,1.11) and overnight hospital stays (aRR=2.02, 95%CI=1.46,2.81). Adolescents with home exposure had lower FEV1% (M=99.9,SE=1.17; β=-5.11, 95%CI=-9.26,-0.96) and FVC% (M=100.0,SE=1.16; β=-5.36, 95%CI=-9.30,-1.42) than adolescents with no home exposure (M=101.0,SE=0.38; M=100.2,SE=0.39, respectively). Adolescents with home exposure were more likely to have an overnight hospital stay (aOR=5.65, 95%CI=3.66,8.73) and at increased risk of having a higher number of overnight hospital stays (aRR=4.08, 95%CI=2.76,6.03).Detectable serum cotinine levels and self-reported home exposure were distinctively associated with decreased pulmonary function and increased healthcare utilization.