Therapeutic options for cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa: a systematic review.
Cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa (CPAN) is a necrotizing vasculitis of the middle-size vessels, confined to the skin. We conducted a systematic review in order to identify studies evaluating the different treatment modalities used in CPAN.This systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines, registered in PROSPERO: CRD42020222195. PubMed/Medline databases were searched from inception to December of 2020 using the terms: “Polyarteritis nodosa[Title/Abstract]) AND ((therapy[Title/Abstract]) OR (management[Title/Abstract]) OR (treatment[Title/Abstract]))” and “Cutaneous arteritis [Title/Abstract]”. Articles evaluating pertaining to the management of CPAN in adults were eligible for inclusion.A total of 7 eligible case series with 325 unique patients were included. No study included a control population. In general, systemic corticosteroids were widely used as induction treatment. Immunosuppressive agents combined with corticosteroids were azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine, sulphapyridine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, mycophenolate, tacrolimus, rituximab, and thalidomide. Other agents utilized in the studies were dapsone, colchicine, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, salicylates, warfarin and clopidogrel. In some studies, the presence of ulcerations was associated with an increased risk of relapse.The evidence available regarding the management of patients with CPAN is limited at best. Further studies are needed in order to evaluate the effect of treatment on disease remission, relapses, and mortality.
Authors: Eleni Papachristodoulou, Loukas Kakoullis, Eleni Tiniakou, Konstantinos Parperis