The Role of Targeted Versus Standard Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Pancreatoduodenectomy in Reducing Postoperative Infectious Complications: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

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Infectious complications are common following pancreatoduodenectomy, which in turn are associated with preoperative biliary drainage. Current guidelines recommend a first-generation cephalosporin as perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis. However, some studies support the use of targeted antibiotics. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the role of prophylactic targeted antibiotics compared to standard antibiotics in reducing postoperative infections following pancreatoduodenectomy.A search from MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library from 1946 to July 2020 was conducted. Studies were included if they compared targeted antibiotics with standard perioperative antibiotics while including outcome data on surgical site infections (SSI). Targeted therapy was defined as perioperative antibiotics targeting organisms prevalent in bile instrumentation or by culture data obtained from the patient or institution. Outcomes assessed were the rate of SSIs and their microbiology profile. Analyses included demographic data, perioperative antibiotics, post-operative outcomes including microbiology data and meta-analysis was performed where applicable.Seven studies were included, with a total of 849 patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy. Targeted antibiotics were associated with a significantly lower rate of postoperative SSI compared to standard antibiotic therapy (21.1% vs 41.9%; RR 0.55, 95%CI 0.37-0.81). Wound/incisional site infections and organ space infections were lower in patients receiving targeted antibiotic prophylaxis (RR 0.33, p=0.0002 and RR 0.54, p=0.0004, respectively). Enterococcus species were the most common bacteria reported.There was a significant reduction in overall SSI rates when targeted antibiotics was used. Current standard antibiotic prophylaxis is inadequate in covering microbes prevalent in postoperative infections developing after pancreatoduodenectomy.

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Authors: Helen Pham, Andy Chen, Christopher B Nahm, Vincent Lam, Tony Pang, Arthur J Richardson