The role of environment in the pathogenesis of keratoconus.

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This study was conducted to demonstrate the importance of the environment in keratoconus (KC) genesis.Genetic-related connective tissue disorders demonstrate the inconsistency of theories regarding KC pathogenesis since no corneal steepening was observed in the majority of these patients. Despite recent advances and decades of research into the genetics of KC, the identification of disease-causing KC genes has been frustrating. Variants found based on genome-wide and next-generation sequencing only seem to account for a small number of cases or play a limited role in KC pathogenesis.The literature shows that mechanical manipulation may be the common underlying factor or the indispensable act precipitating the cascade of events leading to permanent corneal deformation. Hence, ophthalmologists have the opportunity to increase patient awareness about eye manipulation repercussions and treatment for ocular surface disorders.

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Authors: Otávio de Azevedo Magalhães, Mauro Cabral Gonçalves, Damien Gatinel