The Prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorders and Dental Attrition Levels in Patients with Posterior Crossbite and/or Deep Bite: A Preliminary Prospective Study.

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The prevalence of various temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and the severity of attrition in patients with either bilateral or unilateral deep bite and/or posterior crossbite has not been established, nor has the effect of one year of orthodontic treatment on TMD.Of 310 patients presenting with suspected TMD, 160 were diagnosed with various TMD and 150 were TMD-free. Diagnosis was according to the Axis I of the Diagnostic Criteria for TMD. All participants underwent a dental examination, and 100 patients were reevaluated after one year of orthodontic treatment. Fisher’s exact test and the proportion test with Bonferroni’s correction were used for the categorical univariate analysis.There was a significant association (P < 0.001) between deep bite and dental attrition (wear), but not between crossbite and/or deep bite in patients diagnosed with either painful TMD or disc displacement. The risk of sustaining painful TMD when crossbite presented simultaneously on the anterior and the posterior dentition was 2.625-fold greater than when it presented with a normal bite, although this difference was not significant (P=0.286) due to the lack of statistical power. There was no significant sex-related association between the occurrence of either painful TMD or disc displacement. A reduction in TMD findings was demonstrated after one year of treatment, but no statistical power was reached due to the small sample size.Deep bite may be related to dental wear but not to pain from TMD and/or disc displacement. Only crossbite that presents simultaneously on the anterior and the posterior dentition (mixed X-bite) may have some effect on the level of pain in TMD, but not on in the prevalence of disc displacement. Confirmation of these conclusions by well-designed studies on larger patient groups is warranted. There was a clinically significant improvement in TMD findings after one year of treatment.

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Authors: Naser Khayat, Efraim Winocur, Ron Kedem, Orit Winocur Arias, Ayman Zaghal, Nir Shpack