The Latest Transplantation Journal Articles

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Keep up to date with the latest in transplantation. Check out the latest transplantation articles from leading medical journals in a single view, helping you discover relevant articles quickly and easily

  • Cytomegalovirus in urinary sediment in patients with acute kidney injury.
    Immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation is associated with frequent infections. Renal allograft recipients are susceptible to opportunistic infections and can acquire human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections even within the allograft. There, HCMV can be found in both the glomerulus and tubular cells, but is mostly restricted to specific and circumscribed sites. Therefore, not all organ infections […]
  • Kidney transplant in patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in the anti-C5 era: single-center experience with tailored Eculizumab.
    Patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) have long been considered ineligible for kidney transplantation (KTx) in several centers due to the high risk of disease recurrence, graft loss and life-threatening complications. The availability of Eculizumab (ECU) has now overcome this problem. However, the best approach towards timing, maintenance schedule, the possibility of discontinuation and […]
  • Pharmacist-Led Mobile Health Intervention and Transplant Medication Safety: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.
    Medication safety events are predominant contributors to suboptimal graft outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. The goal of this study was to examine the efficacy of improving medication safety through a pharmacist-led, mobile health-based intervention.This was a 12-month, single-center, prospective, parallel, two-arm, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Adult kidney recipients 6-36 months post-transplant were eligible. Participants randomized […]
  • Urinary Cell mRNA Profiles Predictive of Human Kidney Allograft Status.
    Immune monitoring of kidney allograft recipients and personalized therapeutics may help reach the aspirational goal of “one transplant for life.” The invasive kidney biopsy procedure, the diagnostic tool of choice, has become safer and the biopsy classification more refined. Nevertheless, biopsy-associated complications, interobserver variability in biopsy specimen scoring, and costs continue to be significant concerns. […]
  • Donor type and 3-month hospital readmission following kidney transplantation: results from the Netherlands organ transplant registry.
    Hospital readmission after transplantation is common in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). In this study, we aim to compare the risk of 3-month hospital readmission after kidney transplantation with different donor types in the overall population and in both young ( View the full article @ BMC nephrology Get PDF with LibKey Authors: Yiman Wang, Martin […]
  • Differences in physical symptoms between those with and without kidney disease: a comparative study across disease stages in a UK population.
    Those living with kidney disease (KD) report extensive symptom burden. However, research into how symptoms change across stages is limited. The aims of this study were to 1) describe symptom burden across disease trajectory, and 2) to explore whether symptom burden is unique to KD when compared to a non-KD population.Participants aged > 18 years with a […]
  • Targeting Sedentary Behavior in CKD: A Pilot and Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial.
    We tested the feasibility of reducing sedentary behavior common in CKD.We carried out a Sit Less, Interact, Move More intervention in a 24-week parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in patients with stages 2-5 CKD. In the intervention group (n=54), accelerometry performed at baseline and repeated every 4 weeks was used to develop and monitor adherence to […]
  • Long-Term Infectious Complications of Kidney Transplantation.
    Infections remain a common complication of solid-organ transplantation. Most infections in the first month after transplant are typically health care-associated infections, whereas late infections, beyond 6-12 months, are community-acquired infections. Opportunistic infections most frequently present in the first 12 months post-transplant and can be modulated on prior exposures and use of prophylaxis. In this review, […]
  • Recipient Obesity and Kidney Transplant Outcomes: A Mate-Kidney Analysis.
    The impact of extreme recipient obesity on long-term kidney transplant outcomes has been controversial. This study sought to evaluate the association of various levels of recipient obesity on kidney transplantation outcomes by comparing mate-kidney recipient pairs to address possible confounding effects of donor characteristics on post-transplant outcomes.Nationwide observational cohort study, using mate-kidney models.Analysis based on […]
  • Biopsy findings after detection of de novo donor-specific antibodies in renal transplant recipients: a single center experience.
    De novo donor-specific antibodies (DSA) are associated with an increased risk of antibody-mediated rejection and a substantial reduction of allograft survival. We hypothesized that detection of DSA should prompt a biopsy even in the absence of proteinuria and loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). However, data on a population without proteinuria or loss of […]
  • Vitamin K and vascular calcification.
    Vascular calcification is a common and important cardiovascular risk factor in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent advances in the understanding of the biology of vascular calcification implicate vitamin K-dependent proteins as important regulators in this process. This review highlights recent key advances in vascular biology, epidemiology, and clinical trials in this rapidly evolving […]
  • Long-Term Immunosuppression Management: Opportunities and Uncertainties.
    The long-term management of maintenance immunosuppression in kidney transplant recipients remains complex. The vast majority of patients are treated with the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus as the primary agent in combination with mycophenolate, with or without corticosteroids. A tacrolimus trough target 5-8 ng/ml seems to be optimal for rejection prophylaxis, but long-term tacrolimus-related side effects and […]
  • Right Ventricular Dysfunction and Adverse Outcomes after Renal Transplantation.
    Pulmonary hypertension is common among patients with end-stage renal disease, although data regarding the impact of right ventricular (RV) failure on postoperative outcomes remain limited. We hypothesized that echocardiographic findings of RV dilation and dysfunction are associated with adverse clinical outcomes after renal transplant.A retrospective review of adult renal transplant recipients at a single institution […]
  • Determinants of willingness to accept kidney transplantation among chronic kidney disease patients in Ghana.
    The burden of chronic kidney disease in Africa is three to four times higher compared to high-income countries and the cost of treatment is beyond the reach of most affected persons. The best treatment for end stage renal disease is kidney transplantation which is not available in most African countries. As kidney transplantation surgery is […]
  • C-terminal and intact FGF23 in kidney transplant recipients and their associations with overall graft survival.
    Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a risk factor for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and progression of chronic kidney disease. Limited data exist comparing the association of either c-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23) or intact FGF23 (iFGF23) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with overall (all-cause) graft loss.We conducted a prospective observational cohort study in 562 stable kidney […]
  • Detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in pediatric kidney transplant patients.
    The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been studied in immunocompetent children. However, data in the pediatric kidney transplant population (PKT) are lacking.Using two commercial immunoassays that measured IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and IgG against the nucleocapsid (N) protein, we screened 72 PKT recipients who attended the outpatient clinic for routine blood work. The […]
  • Targeting immune cell metabolism in kidney diseases.
    Insights into the relationship between immunometabolism and inflammation have enabled the targeting of several immunity-mediated inflammatory processes that underlie infectious diseases and cancer or drive transplant rejection, but this field remains largely unexplored in kidney diseases. The kidneys comprise heterogeneous cell populations, contain distinct microenvironments such as areas of hypoxia and hypersalinity, and are responsible […]
  • Chronic Allograft Injury.
    With the incremental improvements in long-term kidney transplant survival, there is renewed focus on what causes failure of the transplanted allograft. Over the past decade, our understanding of the injuries that lead to loss of graft function over time has evolved. Chronic allograft injury includes both immune-mediated and nonimmune-mediated injuries, which may involve the organ […]
  • Acute renal replacement therapy in critically ill octogenarian or older patients: prognostic factors and renal outcomes.
    The number of octogenarians or older patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) has been growing over the past several years. The aim of this study is to assess factors associated with acute renal replacement therapy (ARRT) requirement in these patients and the impact of this therapy on 90-day mortality. We also aimed to […]
  • De Novo Malignancies after Kidney Transplantation.
    Cancer is an important outcome after kidney transplantation because it is the second leading cause of death in most Western countries. The excess risk of cancer after transplantation is approximately two to three times higher than the age- and sex-matched general population, driven largely by viral- and immune-related cancers. Once cancer develops, outcomes are generally […]
  • Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder Following Kidney Transplantation: A Review.
    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is one of the most feared complications following kidney transplantation. Over a 10-year period, the risk of PTLD in kidney transplant recipients is 12-fold higher than in matched non-transplanted population. Given the number of kidney transplantations performed, kidney transplant recipients experiencing PTLD outnumber other organ transplant recipients who develop PTLD. EBV […]
  • Approach to stable angina in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.
    Chronic kidney disease is one of the major risk factors for coronary artery disease. Both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and advanced chronic kidney disease patients have atypical presentations of coronary artery disease (CAD) due to modifications in cardinal symptoms and clinical presentation. Data on evaluation and management of coronary artery or stable angina is limited […]
  • Thinking Outside the Box: Novel Kidney Protective Strategies in Kidney Transplantation.
    Despite the reduction in the incidence of acute rejection, a major risk factor for graft loss, there has been only modest improvement in long-term graft survival. Most cases of kidney graft loss have an identifiable cause that is not idiopathic fibrosis/atrophy or calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity. Distinct immunologic and nonimmunologic factors conspire to lead to a […]
  • KDOQI US Commentary on the KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline on the Evaluation and Management of Candidates for Kidney Transplantation.
    Evaluation of patients for kidney transplant candidacy is a comprehensive process that involves a detailed assessment of medical and surgical issues, psychosocial factors, and patients’ physical and cognitive abilities with an aim of balancing the benefits of transplantation and potential risks of surgery and long-term immunosuppression. There is considerable variability among transplant centers in their […]
  • Video as an alternative to in-person consultations in outpatient renal transplant recipient follow-up: a qualitative study.
    Renal transplant recipients have to see a nephrologist for regular follow-up for the rest of their lives. To reduce the burden for the patients, video consultation can be an alternative to traditional in-person hospital consultations. The aim of the current study was, from the perspectives of patients and health care providers, to investigate the perceived […]
  • Early renal function trajectories, cytomegalovirus serostatus and long-term graft outcomes in kidney transplant recipients.
    Improved recognition of factors influencing graft survival has led to better short-term kidney transplant outcomes. However, efforts to prevent long-term graft decline and improve graft survival have seen more modest improvements. The adoption of electronic health records has enabled better recording and identification of donor-recipient factors through the use of modern statistical techniques. We have […]
  • Access to kidney transplantation in Mexico, 2007-2019: a call to end disparities in transplant care.
    Access to kidney transplantation is limited to more than half of the Mexican population. A fragmented health system, gender, and sociocultural factors are barriers to transplant care. We analyzed kidney transplantation in Mexico and describe how public policies and sociocultural factors result in these inequities.Kidney transplant data between 2007 to 2019 were obtained from the […]
  • Predicting the outcome of COVID-19 infection in kidney transplant recipients.
    We aimed to present the demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, and outcomes of our multicenter cohort of adult KTx recipients with COVID-19.We conducted a multicenter, retrospective study using data of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 collected from 34 centers in Turkey. Demographic characteristics, clinical findings, laboratory parameters (hemogram, CRP, AST, ALT, LDH, and ferritin) at admission and […]
  • Morbidity after elective surgery in patients on chronic dialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Patients on chronic dialysis are at increased risk of postoperative mortality following elective surgery compared to patients with normal kidney function, but morbidity outcomes are less often reported. This study ascertains the excess odds of postoperative cardiovascular and infection related morbidity outcomes for patients on chronic dialysis.Systematic searches were performed using MEDLINE, Embase and the […]
  • Do routine hospital data accurately record comorbidity in advanced kidney disease populations? A record linkage cohort study.
    Routine healthcare datasets capturing clinical and administrative information are increasingly being used to examine health outcomes. The accuracy of such data is not clearly defined. We examine the accuracy of diagnosis recording in individuals with advanced chronic kidney disease using a routine healthcare dataset in England with comparison to information collected by trained research nurses.We […]
  • Exploring factors associated with pain in hemodialysis patients: a multicenter cross-sectional study from Palestine.
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a rising medical concern around the world. End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is the last stage of CKD stages that necessitates renal replacement therapy (RRT), such as hemodialysis (HD), which seems to be the most commonly used type. However, patients on HD still suffer from high mortality and morbidity rates compared […]
  • Post-Transplant Pregnancy and Contraception.
    Placed in a historic context, this overview focuses on post-transpant pregnancy, fatherhood, and contraception in women and men. The critical importance of early reproductive counseling because of improved sexual function and the early return of ovulation and menses post-transplant is emphasized. We explain the decision making regarding contraception choices. The available data on the safety […]
  • Kidney transplant dysfunction in a patient with COVID - 19 infection: role of concurrent Sars-Cov 2 nephropathy, chronic rejection and vitamin C-mediated hyperoxalosis: case report.
    COVID-19 infection in kidney transplant recipients often lead to allograft dysfunction. The allograft injury has various histopathological manifestations. Our case illustrates the unusual combination of allograft rejection, acute kidney injury secondary to oxalate nephropathy and SARS CoV-2 nephropathy as the cause of irreversible allograft failure.A 56 year old renal allograft recipient presented with a history of […]
  • Deceased-Donor Acute Kidney Injury and BK Polyomavirus in Kidney Transplant Recipients.
    BK polyomavirus (BKV) infection commonly complicates kidney transplantation, contributing to morbidity and allograft failure. The virus is often donor-derived and influenced by ischemia-reperfusion processes and disruption of structural allograft integrity. We hypothesized that deceased-donor AKI associates with BKV infection in recipients.We studied 1025 kidney recipients from 801 deceased donors transplanted between 2010 and 2013, at […]
  • Managing Patients with Failing Kidney Allograft: Many Questions Remain.
    Patients who receive a kidney transplant commonly experience failure of their allograft. Transplant failure often comes with complex management decisions, such as when and how to wean immunosuppression and start the transition to a second transplant or to dialysis. These decisions are made in the context of important concerns about competing risks, including sensitization and […]
  • Renal transplantation outcomes in obese patients: a French cohort-based study.
    Whilst there are a number of publications comparing the relationship between body mass index (BMI) of kidney transplant recipients and graft/patient survival, no study has assessed this for a French patient cohort.In this study, cause-specific Cox models were used to study patient and graft survival and several other time-to-event measures. Logistic regressions were performed to […]
  • Acute Kidney Injury, Microvascular Rarefaction, and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Kidney Transplant Recipients.
    Animal studies suggest that microvascular rarefaction is a key factor in the acute kidney disease to CKD transition. Hence, delayed graft function appears as a unique human model of AKI to further explore the role of microvascular rarefaction in kidney transplant recipients. Here, we assessed whether delayed graft function is associated with peritubular capillary loss […]
  • The Association of Time to Organ Procurement on Short- and Long-Term Outcomes in Kidney Transplantation.
    Transplant centers in Europe aim to minimize the time from brain death to organ procurement (procurement delay), but evidence to justify this is scarce. In the United States, procurement times are significantly longer. Our objective was to analyze how procurement delay associates with kidney allograft outcomes.Kidney transplantations from brain-dead donors were retrospectively analyzed from the […]
  • The probability of receiving a kidney transplantation in end-stage kidney disease patients who are treated with haemodiafiltration or haemodialysis: a pooled individual participant data from four randomised controlled trials.
    Due to a critical shortage of available kidney grafts, most patients with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD5) require bridging dialysis support. It remains unclear whether treatment by different dialysis modalities changes the selection and/or preparation of a potential transplant candidate. Therefore, we assessed whether the likelihood of receiving kidney transplant (both living or deceased […]
  • Mortality and Access to Kidney Transplantation in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease-Associated Kidney Failure.
    Patients with sickle cell disease-associated kidney failure have high mortality, which might be lowered by kidney transplantation. However, because they show higher post-transplant mortality compared with patients with other kidney failure etiologies, kidney transplantation remains controversial in this population, potentially limiting their chance of receiving transplantation. We aimed to quantify the decrease in mortality associated […]
  • Impact of renal replacement therapies on olfactory ability: results of a cross-sectional case control study.
    Several studies have suggested that chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with olfactory impairment. However, to date, the impact of renal replacement therapies has only been partly defined.We tested the olfactory function of 235 participants [50 kidney transplant recipients (KT), 49 hemodialyzed patients (HD), 30 peritoneal dialysis patients (PD), 51 patients with CKD not […]
  • Source of Post-Transplant Care and Mortality among Kidney Transplant Recipients Dually Enrolled in VA and Medicare.
    Many kidney transplant recipients enrolled in the Veterans Health Administration are also enrolled in Medicare and eligible to receive both Veterans Health Administration and private sector care. Where these patients receive transplant care and its association with mortality are unknown.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of veterans who underwent kidney transplantation between 2008 and 2016 […]
  • Early changes in renal resistive index and mortality in diabetic and nondiabetic kidney transplant recipients: a cohort study.
    Renal resistive index (RI) predicts mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTR). However, its predictive value may be different according to the time of measurement. We analysed RI changes between 1 month and 3 months after transplantation and its predictive value for death with a functioning graft (DWFG).We conducted a retrospective study in 1685 RTR between 1985 and […]
  • An intersectional gender analysis in kidney transplantation: women who donate a kidney.
    Living-donor transplantation is the best treatment option in patients with chronic kidney failure. Global data show that women are less likely to be kidney recipients than men but are more likely to become living kidney donors. We explored the experience of women who donate a kidney to relatives with biological and socio-cultural ties and to […]
  • Safety and effectiveness of everolimus in maintenance kidney transplant patients in the real-world setting: results from a 2-year post-marketing surveillance study in Japan.
    Data on real-world use of everolimus (EVR) in Japanese maintenance kidney transplant (KTx) patients are limited. This post-marketing surveillance study was conducted to assess the safety and effectiveness of EVR, and identify factors affecting renal impairment.Adult maintenance KTx patients were enrolled within 14 days of initiating EVR. Patient medical data were collected using electronic data capture […]
  • “Save the Vein” Initiative in Children With CKD: A Quality Improvement Study.
    An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in the non-dominant arm is the preferred access for hemodialysis (HD) patients. Prior peripheral intravenous (PIV) line placement can lead to vascular injury and limit options for AVF placement, a particular problem for children with the potential need for HD over a lifetime. We instituted an initiative to increase the frequency […]
  • The importance of kidney volume as a marker in the assessment of living-donor kidney transplantation in Japan.
    In living kidney transplantation, predicting the risk of end-stage kidney disease in the organ donors though crucial remains to be resolved. Thus, any useful biomarker to predict kidney outcome would be highly desirable to safeguard donors.This retrospective study was conducted at Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital to confirm whether an increase in preserved kidney volume […]
  • Renal prognoses by different target hemoglobin levels achieved by epoetin beta pegol dosing to chronic kidney disease patients with hyporesponsive anemia to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent: a multicenter open-label randomized controlled study.
    There is no evidence regarding appropriate target hemoglobin levels in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA)-hyporesponsiveness. Therefore, we conducted a randomized controlled study in non-dialysis dependent CKD (NDD-CKD) patients with ESA-hyporesponsiveness, comparing results of intensive versus conservative treatment to maintain hemoglobin levels.This was a multicenter, open-label, randomized, parallel-group study conducted at […]
  • Role and expression of non-classical human leukocyte antigen-G in renal transplanted allografts.
    The non-classical class I molecule human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) has great potential to modulate the immune response. However, the mechanism underlying HLA-G induction remains unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the factors that induce HLA-G expression on proximal tubular epithelial cells (pTECs) in renal transplanted allografts in vivo and in vitro.This study included 40 […]
  • Association of kidney transplantation with mortality on hemodialysis after graft failure.
    Although a substantial number of patients return to dialysis after kidney transplant failure, it remains controversial whether transplant-failure patients have a higher mortality risk than transplant-naïve patients on dialysis who have never undergone kidney transplantation. We compared outcomes of transplant-failure and transplant-naïve patients on hemodialysis.Data from the Japanese National Dialysis Registry (2012-2013) were analyzed, including […]
  • Practicing With Uncertainty: Kidney Transplantation During the COVID-19 Pandemic.
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic required transplant nephrologists, surgeons, and care teams to make decisions about the full spectrum of transplant program operations and clinical practices, in the absence of experience or data. Initially, across the country, there was a reduction in kidney transplant procedures, and a striking pause in the conduct of living […]
  • Radiation dose from medical imaging in end stage renal disease patients: a Nationwide Italian Survey.
    End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are exposed to the risk of ionizing radiation during repeated imaging studies. The variability in diagnostic imaging policies and the accompanying radiation doses across various renal units is still unknown. We studied this variability at the centre level and quantified the associated radiation doses at the patient level.Fourteen Italian […]
  • Pregnancy in Kidney Transplant Recipients.
    Women with end-stage kidney disease commonly have difficulty conceiving through spontaneous pregnancy, and many suffer from infertility. Kidney transplantation restores the impairment in fertility and increases the possibility of pregnancy. In addition, the number of female kidney transplant recipients of reproductive age has been increasing. Thus, preconception counseling, contraceptive management, and family planning are of […]
  • Transplantation of Kidneys From Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Donors to Hepatitis C Virus-Negative Recipients: One-Year Kidney Allograft Outcomes.
    Transplant centers in United States are increasingly willing to transplant kidneys from hepatitis C (HCV) infected donors into hepatitis C negative recipients. We studied the association of HCV infected donor status with kidney allograft function and post-transplant allograft biopsy findings.Retrospective cohort study.We examined 65 HCV negative recipients who received a kidney from a HCV infected […]
  • Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in Diagnosing Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is emerging as an important noninvasive testing modality for coronary angiography. The performance characteristic of CCTA in patients with advanced kidney disease is unknown.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies specifically investigating the sensitivity and specificity of CCTA compared to coronary angiogram as a reference standard in patients […]
  • COVID-19 in Kidney Transplantation: Outcomes, Immunosuppression Management, and Operational Challenges.
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has led to the death of hundreds of thousands of people worldwide. If infected, older individuals and those with diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and compromised immune systems are at higher risk for unfavorable outcomes. These comorbidities are prevalent in patients […]
  • Intradialytic Hypotension and Newly Recognized Peripheral Artery Disease in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis.
    Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) may decrease systemic circulation to the legs, exacerbating symptoms of peripheral artery disease (PAD). We sought to evaluate the relationship between IDH and newly recognized lower extremity PAD among hemodialysis patients STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.Linking the data from USRDS to the electronic health records of a large dialysis provider, we identified […]
  • Glomerular C4d in Post-Transplant IgA Nephropathy is associated with decreased allograft survival.
    Glomerulonephritis (GN), including post-transplant IgAN (post-Tx IgAN) is an important contributor to decreased long-term allograft survival. The immunopathological detection of the complement degradation product C4d in glomeruli (C4dG) has been recently described as a risk factor in native kidney IgAN, however little is known about C4dG deposition in post-Tx IgAN. We hypothesized that glomerular C4d […]
  • Predictors and one-year outcomes of patients with delayed graft function after deceased donor kidney transplantation.
    Delayed graft function (DGF) is closely associated with the use of marginal donated kidneys due to deficits during transplantation and in recipients. We aimed to predict the incidence of DGF and evaluate its effect on graft survival.This retrospective study on kidney transplantation was conducted from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2019, at the Second […]
  • Urinary vitronectin identifies patients with high levels of fibrosis in kidney grafts.
    In kidney transplantation, fibrosis represents the final and irreversible consequence of the pathogenic mechanisms that lead to graft failure, and in the late stages it irremediably precedes the loss of renal function. The invasiveness of kidney biopsy prevents this condition from being frequently monitored, while clinical data are rather unspecific. The objective of this study was […]