The Latest Movement Disorders Journal Articles

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  • Head tremor and pain in cervical dystonia.
    Although head tremor (HT) and pain are prevalent in cervical dystonia (CD), their joint relationship to phenotypic features of focal dystonia remains unclear.We examined how severity of HT and pain are associated with age of CD onset and duration, and whether HT subtypes (“jerky” or “regular”) exhibit distinct relationships between severity of HT and pain.The […]
  • Expanding the clinical spectrum of STIP1 homology and U-box containing protein 1-associated ataxia.
    STUB1 has been first associated with autosomal recessive (SCAR16, MIM# 615768) and later with dominant forms of ataxia (SCA48, MIM# 618093). Pathogenic variations in STUB1 are now considered a frequent cause of cerebellar ataxia.We aimed to improve the clinical, radiological, and molecular delineation of SCAR16 and SCA48.Retrospective collection of patients with SCAR16 or SCA48 diagnosed […]
  • Wearables in the home-based assessment of abnormal movements in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review of the literature.
    At present, the standard practices for home-based assessments of abnormal movements in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are based either on subjective tools or on objective measures that often fail to capture day-to-day fluctuations and long-term information in real-life conditions in a way that patient’s compliance and privacy are secured. The employment of wearable technologies in PD […]
  • Differential effects of sex on longitudinal patterns of cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease.
    Cognitive impairment is an important and diverse symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Sex is a purported risk variable for cognitive decline in PD, but has not been comprehensively investigated.This cross-sectional and longitudinal study examined sex differences in global and domain-specific cognitive performance in a large PD cohort.Cognitive function was evaluated using the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination […]
  • Accuracy of non-guided versus ultrasound-guided injections in cervical muscles: a cadaver study.
    The col-cap concept encouraged neurologists to inject a large group of muscles in the treatment of cervical dystonia. This includes deep muscles such as the obliquus capitis inferior or the semispinalis capitis, and muscles close to vascular or neurological structures such as scalene muscles. Our aim was to determine the accuracy of injections in cervical […]
  • Suicidal ideation in early-onset Parkinson’s disease.
    Patients with early-onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD) often suffer from more frequent depression than those with late-onset Parkinson’s disease (LOPD). However, the clinical characteristics of suicidal ideation (SI) in EOPD remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the prevalence, related factors, and predictive factors of SI in EOPD patients as well as comparison of the prevalence […]
  • Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system associated with ventral dural defects: bleeding from the epidural venous plexus.
    Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system is a rare intractable disease induced by chronic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurological deficits, such as cerebellar ataxia and hearing difficulties, gradually progress if left undiagnosed. Hemosiderin deposition is irreversible because standard medical treatment has not yet been established. Interventions at the source of bleeding may be the key to […]
  • Biochemical markers for severity and risk in GBA and LRRK2 Parkinson’s disease.
    The phenotype of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is variable with mutations in genes such as LRRK2 and GBA explaining part of this heterogeneity. Additional genetic and environmental factors contribute to disease variability.To assess the association between biochemical markers, PD severity and probability score for prodromal PD, among GBA and LRRK2 mutation carriers.Levels of uric acid, vitamin […]
  • Parameters for subthalamic deep brain stimulation in patients with dystonia: a systematic review.
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used for treating dystonia, commonly targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Optimal stimulation parameters are required to achieve satisfying results. However, recommended parameters for STN-DBS remain to be identified. In this review, we aimed to assess the optimal stimulation parameters by analyzing previously published STN-DBS data of patients with dystonia.We examined […]
  • Characterization of gait variability in multiple system atrophy and Parkinson’s disease.
    Gait impairment is a pivotal feature of parkinsonian syndromes and increased gait variability is associated with postural instability and a higher risk of falls.We compared gait variability at different walking velocities between and within groups of patients with Parkinson-variant multiple system atrophy, idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, and a control group of older adults.Gait metrics were recorded […]
  • Brainstem and cerebellar involvement in MOG-IgG-associated disorder versus aquaporin-4-IgG and MS.
    To determine the frequency and characteristics of brainstem or cerebellar involvement in myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibody-associated-disorder (MOGAD) versus aquaporin-4-IgG-seropositive-neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (AQP4-IgG-NMOSD) and multiple sclerosis (MS).In this observational study, we retrospectively identified 185 Mayo Clinic MOGAD patients with: (1) characteristic MOGAD phenotype, (2) MOG-IgG seropositivity by live cell-based assay and (3) MRI lesion(s) of brainstem, cerebellum or […]
  • The sleep and circadian problems of Huntington’s disease: when, why and their importance.
    Mounting evidence supports the existence of an important feedforward cycle between sleep and neurodegeneration, wherein neurodegenerative diseases cause sleep and circadian abnormalities, which in turn exacerbate and accelerate neurodegeneration. If so, sleep therapies bear important potential to slow progression in these diseases.This cycle is challenging to study, as its bidirectional nature renders cause difficult to […]
  • Randomized Trial of Focused Ultrasound Subthalamotomy for Parkinson’s Disease.
    The subthalamic nucleus is the preferred neurosurgical target for deep-brain stimulation to treat cardinal motor features of Parkinson’s disease. Focused ultrasound is an imaging-guided method for creating therapeutic lesions in deep-brain structures, including the subthalamic nucleus.We randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, patients with markedly asymmetric Parkinson’s disease who had motor signs not fully controlled […]
  • Levodopa-carbidopa intrajejunal infusion in Parkinson’s disease: untangling the role of age.
    Levodopa-Carbidopa Intrajejunal gel (LCIG) infusion is an effective intervention for people with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although age may not be a limiting factor for LCIG implant, no data are available on late elderly PD (LE-PD) subjects. In this cross-sectional, we aimed to demonstrate if older age may impact on quality of life (QoL), motor […]
  • Genetic determinants of survival in progressive supranuclear palsy: a genome-wide association study.
    The genetic basis of variation in the progression of primary tauopathies has not been determined. We aimed to identify genetic determinants of survival in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP).In stage one of this two stage genome-wide association study (GWAS), we included individuals with PSP, diagnosed according to pathological and clinical criteria, from two separate cohorts: the […]
  • Investigating the 1-year decline in midbrain-to-pons ratio in the differential diagnosis of PSP and IPD.
    A reliable measure of PSP-specific midbrain atrophy, the midbrain-to-pons ratio (MTPR) has been reported to support the differential diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) from idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Since longitudinal analyses are lacking so far, the present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the relative change of MTPR (relΔt_MTPR) over a 1-year […]
  • The erythrocyte sedimentation rate in male adolescents and subsequent risk of Parkinson’s disease: an observational study.
    Systemic inflammation may be implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Since PD occurs usually in later life, most studies of causal factors are conducted in older populations, so potentially important influences from early life cannot be adequately captured. We investigated whether the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in early adulthood is associated with the […]
  • Late onset depression: dopaminergic deficit and clinical features of prodromal Parkinson’s disease: a cross-sectional study.
    Late onset depression (LOD) may precede the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We aimed to determine the rate of clinical and imaging features associated with prodromal PD/DLB in patients with LOD.In a cross-sectional design, 36 patients with first onset of a depressive disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental […]
  • Axial muscle weakness.
    Axial myopathy is a rare neuromuscular disorder characterised by selective involvement of the paraspinal muscles, and presenting either as a bent spine and/or dropped head syndrome. The axial muscles can be involved in various conditions, including neuromuscular disease, movement disorders, spinal disease and metabolic disorders. There have been recent descriptions of disorders with selective axial […]
  • Serum vitamin D, vitamin D receptor and binding protein genes polymorphisms in restless legs syndrome.
    Several studies showed lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) compared with matched controls, and a single study showed an association between the rs731236 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and the risk for RLS. We aimed to study the relationship between the serum […]
  • Placebo response in degenerative cerebellar ataxias: a descriptive review of randomized, placebo-controlled trials.
    Placebo response in degenerative cerebellar ataxias (CAs) has never been studied despite the large number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have been conducted. In this descriptive review, we aimed to examine the placebo response in patients with CAs. We performed a literature search on PubMed for RCTs on CAs that were published from 1977 […]
  • Serum BDNF discriminates Parkinson’s disease patients with depression from without depression and reflect motor severity and gender differences.
    To evaluate the diagnostic value of serum Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels for discriminating PD with depression from without depression, and to investigate whether serum BDNF levels were associated with motor severity and gender in depressed PD patients.Demographic and clinical data were collected from 122 PD patients with depression, 137 without depression and 110 healthy […]
  • Central retina changes in Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Central retina imaging is important for early Parkinson’s disease (PD) recognition. We aimed to investigate central retina changes using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in PD patients.We systematically searched PubMed and EMBASE to identify studies comparing the whole or individual layer thickness of central retina between PD patients and health controls using SD-OCT from inception […]
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia type 23 (SCA23): a review.
    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs), formerly known as autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCAs), are a group of hereditary heterogeneous neurodegenerative diseases. Gait, progressive ataxia, dysarthria, and eye movement disorder are common symptoms of spinocerebellar ataxias. Other symptoms include peripheral neuropathy, cognitive impairment, psychosis, and seizures. Patients may lose their lives due to out of coordinated respiration and/or swallowing. […]
  • Central sensitization in migraine is related to restless legs syndrome.
    We hypothesized that, in migraine patients, central sensitization (CS) could be associated with comorbid restless legs syndrome (RLS).We conducted a case-control study including 186 migraine patients and 186 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Symptoms related to CS syndrome were assessed by the Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI). Individuals with CSI Part A (CSI-A) scores ≥ 40 were defined […]
  • Nanoparticles for drug delivery in Parkinson’s disease.
    Although effective symptomatic treatments for Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been available for some time, efficient and well-controlled drug delivery to the brain has proven to be challenging. The emergence of nanotechnology has created new opportunities not only for improving the pharmacokinetics of conventional therapies but also for developing novel treatment approaches and disease modifying therapies. […]
  • Fronto-striatal circuits for cognitive flexibility in far from onset Huntington’s disease: evidence from the Young Adult Study.
    Cognitive flexibility, which is key for adaptive decision-making, engages prefrontal cortex (PFC)-striatal circuitry and is impaired in both manifest and premanifest Huntington’s disease (pre-HD). The aim of this study was to examine cognitive flexibility in a far from onset pre-HD cohort to determine whether an early impairment exists and if so, whether fronto-striatal circuits were […]
  • PolyQ-expanded ataxin-3 protein levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells correlate with clinical parameters in SCA3: a pilot study.
    In view of upcoming clinical trials, quantitative molecular markers accessible in peripheral blood are of critical importance as prognostic or pharmacodynamic markers in genetic neurodegenerative diseases such as Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3 (SCA3), in particular for signaling target engagement. In this pilot study, we focused on the quantification of ataxin-3, the protein altered in SCA3, […]
  • DRPLA: understanding the natural history and developing biomarkers to accelerate therapeutic trials in a globally rare repeat expansion disorder.
    Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG repeat expansions in the atrophin-1 gene and is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. There are currently no disease-modifying treatments available. The broad development of therapies for DRPLA, as well as other similar rare diseases, has hit a roadblock due to the rarity of […]
  • Better quality of life and less caregiver strain in young-onset Parkinson’s disease: a multicentre retrospective cohort study.
    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is typically considered as a disease of the elderly. However, there is a sizeable subgroup of patients where PD starts at a younger age, known as young-onset PD (YOPD). We evaluated the differences in quality of life and caregiver strain between YOPD and later onset PD (LOPD) patients in a large cohort.In […]
  • Management of Parkinson’s disease patients after DBS by remote programming: preliminary application of single center during quarantine of 2019-nCoV.
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). On time follow-up and timely programing of symptoms are important measures to maintain the effectiveness of DBS. Due to the highly contagious nature of 2019-nCoV, patients were quarantined. With the help of Internet technologies, we continued to provide motor and non-motor […]
  • Monogenic variants in dystonia: an exome-wide sequencing study.
    Dystonia is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition that occurs in isolation (isolated dystonia), in combination with other movement disorders (combined dystonia), or in the context of multisymptomatic phenotypes (isolated or combined dystonia with other neurological involvement). However, our understanding of its aetiology is still incomplete. We aimed to elucidate the monogenic causes for the […]
  • Interrupting sequence variants and age of onset in Huntington’s disease: clinical implications and emerging therapies.
    Huntington’s disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by CAG-CAA repeat expansion, encoding polyglutamine, in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Current age-of-clinical-onset prediction models for Huntington’s disease are based on polyglutamine length and explain only a proportion of the variability in age of onset observed between patients. These length-based assays do not interrogate the […]
  • Biomarkers in functional movement disorders: a systematic review.
    Functional movement disorders (FMD) are proposed to reflect a specific problem with voluntary control of movement, despite normal intent to move and an intact neural capacity for movement. In many cases, a positive diagnosis of FMD can be established on clinical grounds. However, the diagnosis remains challenging in certain scenarios, and there is a need […]
  • Study on sleep-wake disorders in patients with genetic and non-genetic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
    To study the frequency and clinical features of sleep disturbances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and compare sleep disorders between ALS with and without mutations.In this case-control study, 204 ALS patients and 206 controls were included. We evaluated sleep quality using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was diagnosed according to […]
  • Sexual function, intimate relationships and Friedreich ataxia.
    Sexual dysfunction (SD) is reported in neurological conditions similar to Friedreich ataxia (FRDA). Anecdotally individuals with FRDA report SD including erectile dysfunction and altered genital sensation. Understanding SD in FRDA assists health professionals identify SD issues and improve healthcare for individuals with FRDA.To quantify if, and to what extent, people with FRDA experience challenges with […]
  • Diffusion imaging in Huntington’s disease: comprehensive review.
    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a monogenic disorder with 100% penetrance. With the advent of genetic testing in adults, disease-related, structural brain changes can be investigated from the earliest, premorbid stages of HD. While examining macrostructural change characterises global neuronal damage, investigating microstructural alterations provides information regarding brain organisation and its underlying biological properties. Diffusion MRI […]
  • Pallidal deep brain stimulation in primary Meige syndrome: clinical outcomes and psychiatric features.
    To study the efficacy and safety of bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) in refractory Meige syndrome (MS) and evaluate the psychiatric disorders before and after surgery.Twenty-two patients with MS treated with bilateral GPi-DBS were retrospectively analysed before surgery and after continuous neurostimulation. Before surgery, patients were assessed by the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating […]
  • Spinal cord stimulation therapy for gait dysfunction in progressive supranuclear palsy patients.
    There are no effective symptomatic treatments for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Recent studies report benefits of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for freezing of gait (FOG) and gait disorders in Parkinson’s disease and atypical Parkinsonism patients. This is the first study to report therapeutic effects of SCS in Richardson’s syndrome PSP (PSP-RS) patients.Epidural SCS was implanted […]
  • Huntington’s disease-like 2: a phenocopy not to miss.
    A 67-year-old Brazilian man of African ancestry and his 60-year-old sister both presented with choreiform movements, although in the man these were significantly overshadowed by additional parkinsonism. The man also had a history of four epileptic seizures. Neurological examination in each also found slow saccades and a dysexecutive syndrome. Genetic tests for Huntington’s disease were […]
  • Action fluency identifies different sex, age, global cognition, executive function and brain activation profile in non-demented patients with Parkinson’s disease.
    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have difficulties processing action words, which could be related to early cognitive decline. The action fluency test can be used to quickly and easily assess the processing of action words in PD. The goal of this study was to characterize how the action fluency test relates to personal characteristics, disease […]
  • Kinematic but not clinical measures predict falls in Parkinson-related orthostatic hypotension.
    We sought to test the hypothesis that technology could predict the risk of falls in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with orthostatic hypotension (OH) with greater accuracy than in-clinic assessment.Twenty-six consecutive PD patients with OH underwent clinical (including home-like assessments of activities of daily living) and kinematic evaluations of balance and gait as well as beat-to-beat […]
  • Longitudinal prediction of falls and near falls frequencies in Parkinson’s disease: a prospective cohort study.
    Several prediction models for falls/near falls in Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been proposed. However, longitudinal predictors of frequency of falls/near falls are poorly investigated. Therefore, we aimed to identify short- and long-term predictors of the number of falls/near falls in PD.A prospective cohort of 58 persons with PD was assessed at baseline (mean age and […]
  • Ataxia telangiectasia: what the neurologist needs to know.
    Ataxia telangiectasia is an autosomal recessive DNA repair disorder characterised by complex neurological symptoms, with an elevated risk of malignancy, immunodeficiency and other systemic complications. Patients with variant ataxia telangiectasia-with some preserved ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase activity-have a milder and often atypical phenotype, which can lead to long delays in diagnosis. Clinicians need to be […]
  • Eye movements and association with regional brain atrophy in clinical subtypes of progressive supranuclear palsy.
    To investigate oculomotor impairment in subtypes of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and its associations with clinical features and regional brain volumes in PSP.We compared the video-oculography (VOG) findings of 123 PSP patients, consisting of 66 PSP-Richardson syndrome (PSP-RS), 28 PSP-parkinsonism (PSP-P), and 29 PSP-progressive gait freezing (PSP-PGF), along with 80 Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. We […]
  • Potential human transmission of amyloid β pathology: surveillance and risks.
    Studies in experimental animals show transmissibility of amyloidogenic proteins associated with prion diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases. Although these data raise potential concerns for public health, convincing evidence for human iatrogenic transmission only exists for prions and amyloid β after systemic injections of contaminated growth hormone extracts or dura mater grafts […]
  • Patient perspectives on the therapeutic profile of botulinum neurotoxin type A in cervical dystonia.
    Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) is an effective pharmacological treatment for the management of cervical dystonia (CD) that requires repeated administration at variable intervals. We explored patient perceptions of the impact of CD and the waning of BoNT-A therapeutic effects.An internet-based survey was conducted through Carenity, a global online patient community, from May to September […]
  • Assessment of Wearing Off in Parkinson’s disease using objective measurement.
    Development of “Wearing Off” (WO) of motor and non-motor function in Parkinson’s disease (PD) adversely affects quality of life. This suggest that identifying and treating WO is important. However, identification of WO depends on people with PD (PwP) recognising and reporting WO and there is a perception that WO may be significantly underestimated.We investigate the […]
  • Parkinson’s disease determinants, prediction and gene-environment interactions in the UK Biobank.
    To systematically investigate the association of environmental risk factors and prodromal features with incident Parkinson’s disease (PD) diagnosis and the interaction of genetic risk with these factors. To evaluate whether existing risk prediction algorithms are improved by the inclusion of genetic risk scores.We identified individuals with an incident diagnosis of PD (n=1276) and controls (n=500 406) […]
  • Deep brain stimulation of the internal globus pallidus does not affect the limbic circuit in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a PET study.
    Internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a safe and effective alternative treatment in Parkinson’s disease (PD) for patients with cognitive impairment. However, no study has yet investigated metabolic changes within a large series of patients undergoing GPi stimulation.We assessed motor, cognitive and psychiatric changes, as well as modifications in brain glucose metabolism […]
  • CANVAS: a late onset ataxia due to biallelic intronic AAGGG expansions.
    The ataxias are a group of disorders that manifest with balance, movement, speech and visual problems. They can arise due to dysfunction of the cerebellum, the vestibular system and/or the sensory neurons. Genetic defects are a common cause of chronic ataxia, particularly common are repeat expansions in this group of conditions. Co-occurrence of cerebellar ataxia […]
  • Dopaminergic therapy and prefrontal activation during walking in individuals with Parkinson’s disease: does the levodopa overdose hypothesis extend to gait?
    The “levodopa-overdose hypothesis” posits that dopaminergic replacement therapy (1) increases performance on tasks that depend on the nigrostriatal-pathway (e.g., motor-control circuits), yet (2) decreases performance on tasks that depend upon the mesocorticolimbic-pathway (e.g., prefrontal cortex, PFC). Previous work in Parkinson’s disease (PD) investigated this model while focusing on cognitive function. Here, we evaluated whether this […]
  • SMILE: a predictive model for Scoring the severity of relapses in MultIple scLErosis.
    In relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), relapse severity and residual disability are difficult to predict. Nevertheless, this information is crucial both for guiding relapse treatment strategies and for informing patients.We, therefore, developed and validated a clinical-based model for predicting the risk of residual disability at 6 months post-relapse in MS.We used the data of 186 patients with […]
  • Does pallidal neuromodulation influence cognitive decline in Huntington’s disease?
    Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder associated with motor, psychiatric and cognitive deterioration over time. To date, Continuous Electrical Neuromodulation (CEN) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) has been reported to improve chorea but little is known about cognitive progression in these patients. We propose to examine CEN impact on expected cognitive […]
  • Parkinson’s disease laterality: a 11C-PE2I PET imaging study.
    Asymmetry of striatal dopaminergic deficits and motor symptoms is a typical characteristic of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study aims to characterise the trend of asymmetry in moderate-stage PD. We performed a 19-month longitudinal study in 27 patients with PET-CT imaging and appropriate clinical assessments. 11C-PE2I non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) was calculated bilaterally for the […]
  • Feasibility and initial validation of ‘HD-Mobile’, a smartphone application for remote self-administration of performance-based cognitive measures in Huntington’s disease.
    Smartphone-based cognitive assessment measures allow efficient, rapid, and convenient collection of cognitive datasets. Establishment of feasibility and validity is essential for the widespread use of this approach. We describe a novel smartphone application (HD-Mobile) that includes three performance-based cognitive tasks with four key outcome measures, for use with Huntington’s disease (HD) samples. We describe known […]
  • Vascular risk factors, white matter lesions and cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: the PACOS longitudinal study.
    Vascular risk factors (VRFs) may be associated with cognitive decline in early Parkinson’s disease (PD) but results are inconclusive. The identification of modifiable risk factors is relevant for prevention and treatment.Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients of the PACOS cohort who underwent a baseline and follow-up neuropsychological evaluation were enrolled in the study. PD with Mild Cognitive […]
  • Epileptic seizures of suspected autoimmune origin: a multicentre retrospective study.
    To analyse autoantibody status in a well-defined European multicentre cohort of patients with epilepsy of unknown aetiology and to validate the recently proposed Antibody Prevalence in Epilepsy (APE2) and Response to ImmunoTherapy in Epilepsy (RITE2) scores.We retrospectively collected clinical and paraclinical data of 92 patients referred to the Neurology Units of Verona and Salzburg between […]
  • Descriptive neuroradiology: beyond the hummingbird.
    Radiology signs have long been described in ways that communicate the imagery around us to enhance our cognitive perception. Here, we describe the use and limitations of 10 such signs in neuroradiology, divided into three groups. The first are signs that are reliable for a specific diagnosis, such as the Medusa head sign indicating a […]
  • Descriptive neuroradiology: beyond the hummingbird.
    Radiology signs have long been described in ways that communicate the imagery around us to enhance our cognitive perception. Here, we describe the use and limitations of 10 such signs in neuroradiology, divided into three groups. The first are signs that are reliable for a specific diagnosis, such as the Medusa head sign indicating a […]