Airway mucin MUC5AC and MUC5B concentrations and the initiation and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an analysis of the SPIROMICS cohort.

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We previously described the contributions of increased total airway mucin concentrations to the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the chronic bronchitic component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here, we investigated […]

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Colchicine for community-treated patients with COVID-19 (COLCORONA): a phase 3, randomised, double-blinded, adaptive, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial.

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Evidence suggests a role for excessive inflammation in COVID-19 complications. Colchicine is an oral anti-inflammatory medication beneficial in gout, pericarditis, and coronary disease. We aimed to investigate the effect of […]

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Duration of amoxicillin-clavulanate for protracted bacterial bronchitis in children (DACS): a multi-centre, double blind, randomised controlled trial.

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Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is a leading cause of chronic wet cough in children. The current standard treatment in European and American guidelines is 2 weeks of antibiotics, but the […]

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A tricompartmental model of lung oxygenation disruption to explain pulmonary and systemic pathology in severe COVID-19.

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The emergent 21st century betacoronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, lead to clinicopathological manifestations with unusual features, such as early-onset chest pain, pulmonary infarction, and pulmonary and systemic thromboembolism that is pathologically linked […]

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Changes in in-hospital mortality in the first wave of COVID-19: a multicentre prospective observational cohort study using the WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK.

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Mortality rates in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in the UK appeared to decline during the first wave of the pandemic. We aimed to quantify potential drivers of this change and […]

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Cytokine adsorption in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (CYCOV): a single centre, open-label, randomised, controlled trial.

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We sought to clarify the benefit of cytokine adsorption in patients with COVID-19 supported with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).We did a single-centre, open-label, randomised, controlled trial to investigate cytokine […]

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A tricompartmental model of lung oxygenation disruption to explain pulmonary and systemic pathology in severe COVID-19.

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The emergent 21st century betacoronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, lead to clinicopathological manifestations with unusual features, such as early-onset chest pain, pulmonary infarction, and pulmonary and systemic thromboembolism that is pathologically linked […]

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The inflammatory profile of exacerbations in patients with severe refractory eosinophilic asthma receiving mepolizumab (the MEX study): a prospective observational study.

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Clinical trials with mepolizumab, a humanised monoclonal antibody against interleukin-5, show a 50% reduction in severe asthma exacerbations in people with severe eosinophilic asthma. Exacerbations in patients treated with mepolizumab […]

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Long-term safety of lumacaftor-ivacaftor in children aged 2-5 years with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation: a multicentre, phase 3, open-label, extension study.

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A previous phase 3 study showed that lumacaftor-ivacaftor was generally safe and well tolerated over 24 weeks of treatment in children aged 2-5 years with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the […]

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3-month, 6-month, 9-month, and 12-month respiratory outcomes in patients following COVID-19-related hospitalisation: a prospective study.

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The consequences of COVID-19 in those who recover from acute infection requiring hospitalisation have yet to be clearly defined. We aimed to describe the temporal trends in respiratory outcomes over […]

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The Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome: should patients receiving high-flow nasal oxygen be included?

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The 2012 Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) provided validated support for three levels of initial arterial hypoxaemia that correlated with mortality in patients receiving ventilatory support. Since […]

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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation network organisation and clinical outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in Greater Paris, France: a multicentre cohort study.

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In the Île-de-France region (henceforth termed Greater Paris), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was considered early in the COVID-19 pandemic. We report ECMO network […]

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Mepolizumab for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (SYNAPSE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

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Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps affects approximately 2-4% of the general population, and long-term use of systemic corticosteroids is associated with adverse effects. The aim of this study was to […]

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Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the respiratory syncytial virus prefusion F subunit vaccine DS-Cav1: a phase 1, randomised, open-label, dose-escalation clinical trial.

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Multiple active vaccination approaches have proven ineffective in reducing the substantial morbidity and mortality caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infants and older adults (aged ≥65 years). A vaccine […]

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Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery system with 0, 8, or 36 mg/mL liquid nicotine versus a cigarette substitute on tobacco-related toxicant exposure: a four-arm, parallel-group, randomised, controlled trial.

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Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDSs) are used by some smokers to reduce cigarette consumption, but their effectiveness is uncertain. We aimed to examine the extent to which ENDSs or a […]

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Inhaled budesonide in the treatment of early COVID-19 (STOIC): a phase 2, open-label, randomised controlled trial.

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Multiple early reports of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 showed that patients with chronic respiratory disease were significantly under-represented in these cohorts. We hypothesised that the widespread use of […]

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Tremelimumab plus durvalumab retreatment and 4-year outcomes in patients with mesothelioma: a follow-up of the open label, non-randomised, phase 2 NIBIT-MESO-1 study.

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The NIBIT-MESO-1 study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of tremelimumab combined with durvalumab in patient with unresectable mesothelioma followed up for a median of 52 months [IQR 49-53]. Here, we […]

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Efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab in patients with advanced mesothelioma in the open-label, single-arm, phase 2 KEYNOTE-158 study.

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Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has few treatment options. Pembrolizumab showed preliminary clinical benefit in programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive MPM. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab monotherapy in […]

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Association between pre-existing respiratory disease and its treatment, and severe COVID-19: a population cohort study.

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Previous studies suggested that the prevalence of chronic respiratory disease in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 was lower than its prevalence in the general population. The aim of this study was […]

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Association between pre-existing respiratory disease and its treatment, and severe COVID-19: a population cohort study.

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Previous studies suggested that the prevalence of chronic respiratory disease in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 was lower than its prevalence in the general population. The aim of this study was […]

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Early outcomes after lung transplantation for severe COVID-19: a series of the first consecutive cases from four countries.

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Lung transplantation is a life-saving treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease; however, it is infrequently considered for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) attributable to infectious causes. We […]

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Pirfenidone in patients with progressive fibrotic interstitial lung diseases other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (RELIEF): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial.

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Pirfenidone has been shown to slow disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, there are few treatment options for progressive fibrotic interstitial lung diseases (ILDs)) other than […]

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Efficacy, safety, and genetic analysis of furmonertinib (AST2818) in patients with EGFR T790M mutated non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase 2b, multicentre, single-arm, open-label study.

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Furmonertinib (AST2818) is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) targeting both sensitising EGFR and EGFR Thr790Met (T790M) mutations. This study aimed to assess the efficacy […]

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