Endoscopy in the coagulopathic patient.

The presence of coagulopathy in patients profoundly affects the performance of gastrointestinal endoscopy. However, the coagulopathy in chronic liver disease (CLD) and therapeutic anticoagulation to lower thromboembolic risk are different. In this review, we briefly discuss the hemostatic alterations in CLD leading to coagulopathy and the periprocedure management of antithrombotic medications in patients needing emergency or elective gastrointestinal endoscopy.Prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR) are unreliable measures of bleeding risk and hemostasis in CLD. Therefore, expert opinion advises no preprocedure fresh frozen plasma (FFP) infusion to correct the INR. There has been a proliferation of and increasing use of antithrombotic medications for therapeutic anticoagulation. Their management depends on the gastrointestinal endoscopy procedure bleeding risk, the acuity of the procedure, and the underlying thromboembolic risk of the patient.Cirrhotic coagulopathy features a rebalancing of procoagulant and anticoagulant factors. PT and INR do not accurately measure this rebalanced hemostasis. Thus, expert opinion does not recommend FFP infusion to correct the PT or INR before performing gastrointestinal endoscopy. Management of therapeutic anticoagulation in endoscopy depends on the acuity of the indication, the procedure bleeding risk, and the thromboembolic risk of stopping anticoagulation. At present, there are only expert opinion recommendations concerning periendoscopy coagulopathy management in CLD and in therapeutic anticoagulation. More controlled clinical studies will clarify bleeding risks when performing gastrointestinal procedures in these patients and better direct patient care. Until then, clinical management of antithrombotic medications are based an individual patient’s medical conditions and available options for treatment.

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Pancreatic steatosis: an update.

Pancreatic steatosis is a clinical entity with emerging significance and impacts patient health in a multitude of ways. It has a high prevalence in the global population with predilections for different demographics by age, sex and ethnicity. Understanding the pathophysiology, clinical features and complications of this entity may be important to understanding the consequences of the ongoing obesity global epidemic.Obesity and metabolic syndrome contribute to metabolic derangements that result in lipid mishandling by adipocytes. Adipocytokine imbalances in circulation and in the pancreatic microenvironment cause chronic, low-grade inflammation. The resulting beta cell and acinar cell apoptosis leads to pancreatic endocrine and exocrine dysfunction. Furthermore, these adipocytokines regulate cell growth, differentiation, as well as angiogenesis and lymphatic spread. These consequences of adipocyte infiltration are thought to initiate carcinogenesis, leading to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.Obesity will lead to millions of deaths each year and pancreatic steatosis may be the key intermediate entity that leads to obesity-related complications. Enhancing our understanding may reveal strategies for preventing mortality and morbidity related to the global epidemic of obesity. Further research is needed to determine the pathophysiology, long-term complications and effective treatment strategies for this condition.

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Interventional endoscopic ultrasonography for benign biliary diseases in patients with surgically altered anatomy.

At present, balloon enteroscopy-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the mainstay of therapy for benign biliary diseases in patients with surgically altered anatomy (SAA). Recently interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) techniques have been used for not only drainage procedure but also treatment procedure in such patients. This review aims to discuss details about interventional EUS techniques in such patients and published clinical data.Antegrade treatment such as antegrade stone removal for bile duct stones or guidewire manipulation across the anastomotic stricture following antegrade balloon dilation and antegrade stenting for the stricture via the approach route created by EUS-bilioenterostomy, so-called EUS-guided antegrade intervention, have been developed. In difficult cases, per-oral cholangioscopy-assisted antegrade intervention has been reported as a useful technique. In addition, other novel alternative interventional EUS techniques have been also reported such as EUS-directed transgastric ERCP in patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.Interventional EUS techniques appear to be feasible and safe alternative procedures for benign biliary diseases in patients with SAA after balloon enteroscopy-assisted ERCP failure.

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Imaging for Barrett’s esophagus: state of the art.

Barrett’s esophagus is the premalignant condition for esophageal cancer and the diagnosis of esophageal adenocarcinoma on index endoscopy is increasing. Many advanced endoscopic techniques are available and aim to identify Barrett’s esophagus-associated neoplasia earlier, thereby preventing progression into malignancy.It is well established adherence to Seattle protocol increases dysplasia detection but leaves large portions of mucosa unsampled. Recent attention has been given to wide-area transepithelial sampling as an additional means of biopsy and shows increased dysplasia detection rates. Many endoscopic techniques aim to increase the success of diagnosis of Barrett’s esophagus-associated neoplasia, including probe confocal endomicroscopy, volumetric laser endomicroscopy, and virtual chromoendoscopy. Interestingly, volumetric laser endomicroscopy may also be useful in delineating margins during endoscopic mucosal resection, leading to both diagnostic and therapeutic applications.Advanced endoscopic techniques are available to increase detection of Barrett’s esophagus-associated neoplasia; however, these remain localized to academic centers of excellence. With recent advancements in both sampling techniques and the potential application of imaging to therapeutics, these techniques are becoming more accessible to community endoscopists.

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Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are a rare, heterogeneous group of pancreatic neoplasms with a wide range of malignant potential. They may manifest as noninfiltrative, slow-growing tumors, locally invasive masses, or even swiftly metastasizing cancers.In recent years, because of the increasing amount of scientific literature available for pNETs, the classification, prognostic stratification criteria, and available consensus guidelines for diagnosis and therapy have been revised and updated.The vast majority of new pNET diagnoses consist of incidentally discovered lesions on cross-sectional imaging. The biologic behavior of pNETs is defined by the grade and stage of the tumor. Surgery is the only curative treatment and it, therefore, represents the first therapeutic choice for any localized pNET; however, recent evidence suggests that patients with small (<2?cm), nonfunctioning G1 tumors can be safely observed.An aggressive surgical approach towards liver metastases is recommended in selected cases, as well as liver-directed therapies for disease control. In the presence of unresectable progressive disease, somatostatin analogs, targeted therapies such as everolimus, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and systemic chemotherapy are all useful tools for prolonging survival.

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Treatment of walled-off pancreatic necrosis.

To review the current management of walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN).The management of WOPN has evolved. Many collections do not require intervention and may resolve over time. Nutritional support and treatment of infection are two critical components of medical management. For collections requiring drainage, minimally invasive endoscopic therapies now play a primary role. Endoscopic transmural puncture with stent placement may provide access for drainage and decompression. More complex collections may require transluminal instrumentation with lavage, debridement, and necrosectomy. Concurrent pancreatic duct injuries including strictures, leaks, and disconnections are very common. Addressing the pancreatic ductal injury is a key component in the long-term success of management strategies. Providing high-level care for patients requires a multidisciplinary approach with providers specialized in the management of severe acute pancreatitis and associated complications.Minimally invasive management strategies improve the outcomes for patients with WOPN. Close follow-up, medical therapy, and nutritional support are required for most patients. Endoscopic transmural drainage and necrosectomy are the primary approaches for collections requiring intervention. Protocols for endoscopic drainage are being refined to reduce side effects and decrease the number of interventions required for resolution.

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Endoscopic techniques for myotomy of the lower esophageal sphincter and pylorus.

Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) and gastric peroral endoscopic myotomy (G-POEM) are minimally invasive endoscopic procedures for the treatment of esophageal motility disorders and refractory gastroparesis, respectively. In this review, we highlight the most recent publications on the technical aspects of POEM and G-POEM.POEM has evolved into a standard therapeutic option in patients with all achalasia subtypes with excellent durability and safety profile. G-POEM is a novel endoscopic procedure with promising results in terms of efficacy, safety, and symptom improvement in patients with refractory gastroparesis.POEM and G-POEM are novel endoscopic procedures. Practice patterns vary among endoscopists and procedure techniques continue to evolve. Comparative studies examining outcomes of different techniques are needed.

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Endoscopic imaging techniques for detecting early colorectal cancer.

The detection of early colorectal cancer has improved notably since the introduction of bowel cancer screening programmes. This has created new challenges from endoscopic, histological and therapeutic perspectives. Here, we outline the limitations of current clinical practice and ways of implementing optical diagnosis to overcome these limitations.Virtual chromoendoscopy without magnification for predicting or ruling out deep submucosal invasion is useful in real clinical practice for most lesions. However, magnifying virtual chromoendoscopy is needed to make an accurate diagnosis in nonulcerated narrow-band imaging international colorectal endoscopic (NICE) type 3 lesions or NICE type 2 lesions with depressed areas or of nodular mixed type. Finally, dye-based magnifying chromoendoscopy is needed in Japanese NBI Expert Team 2B lesions assessed with magnifying virtual chromoendoscopy.A four-step strategy is proposed, combining white-light assessment, virtual chromoendoscopy without magnification, virtual chromoendoscopy with magnification and dye-based chromoendoscopy with magnification.

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Management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency.

Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) is one of the well known causes of malabsorption syndrome. An insufficient secretion of pancreatic enzymes and bicarbonate secondary to different pancreatic diseases and upper gastrointestinal and pancreatic surgery leads to maldigestion and malabsorption of nutrients. Patients with PEI may present with symptoms of malabsorption and different nutritional deficiencies. Recent data support the high clinical relevance of PEI and its treatment.Deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins, proteins, micronutrients and antioxidants in patients with PEI are associated not only with an increased risk of osteoporosis and sarcopenia but also of cardiovascular events and mortality. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) allows improving fat and protein digestion, relieving maldigestion-related symptoms, normalizing the nutritional status, and improving quality of life of patients with PEI. Recent data support the efficacy of PERT on survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. Dose of oral pancreatic enzymes should be adequate to normalize the nutritional status of PEI patients.Increasing evidence supports the relevance of PEI management by dietary advice and appropriate PERT. Well designed and powered randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials are needed to further evaluate the clinical impact of PEI and its treatment in clinical practice.

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Endoscopic techniques for weight loss and treating metabolic syndrome.

The endoscopic armamentarium against obesity and metabolic syndrome is rapidly growing and improving. Novel devices have been tested and recent data either support or reject their use. We aim to discuss current data on new endoscopic procedures addressing overweight, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.Four-year follow-up of the aspiration therapy have shown efficacy and safety at long term. A recent consensus on intragastric balloon gathered experience from more than 40?000 procedures and standardized most steps of the treatment. The TransPyloric Shuttle has been proven effective at short term but carries high rates of adverse events. The endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty promotes similar weight loss to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in mildly obese patien. The endoluminal magnetic partial jejunal diversion promoted good weight loss and a significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) but most cases required laparoscopic assistance to couple the magnets. One-year follow-up demonstrated that the duodenal mucosal resurfacing carried a 1.0% reduction in HbA1c.Innovative endoscopic procedures focused on the treatment of overweight and related diseases are available and there is growing evidence supporting their use. Nonetheless, a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory.Video abstracthttp://links.lww.com/COG/A25.

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