Systematic review of the clinical spectrum of CASPR2 antibody syndrome.
Contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) autoantibody disease has a variable clinical phenotype. We present a case report and performed a systematic review of the literature to summarize: (1) the clinical phenotype of patients with CASPR2 antibodies, (2) the findings in neurological investigations, and (3) the associated neuroimaging findings.A chart review was performed for the case report. A systematic review of the medical literature was performed from first available to June 13, 2018. Abstracts were screened, and full-text peer-reviewed publications for novel patients with CASPR2 positivity in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were included. Selected publications were reviewed, and relevant information was collated. Data were analyzed to determine overall frequency for demographic information, clinical presentations, and investigation findings.Our patient was a previously healthy 61-year-old male with both serum and CSF CASPR2 antibodies who presented with limbic encephalitis and refractory epilepsy. He was successfully treated with immunosuppression. For our systematic review, we identified 667 patients from 106 studies. Sixty-nine percent were male. Median age was 54 years (IQR 39-65.5). Median disease duration was 12 months (IQR 5.6-20). Reported overall clinical syndromes were: autoimmune encephalitis [69/134 (51.5%)], limbic encephalitis [106/274 (38.7%)], peripheral nerve hyperexcitability [72/191 (37.7%)], Morvan syndrome [57/251 (22.7%)], and cerebellar syndrome [24/163 (14.7%)]. Patients had positive serum [642/642 (100%)] and CSF [87/173 (50.3%)] CASPR2 antibodies. MRI was reported as abnormal in 159/299 patients (53.1%), and the most common abnormalities were encephalitis or T2 hyperintensities in the medial temporal lobes, or hippocampal atrophy, mesial temporal sclerosis, or hippocampal sclerosis. FDG-PET was abnormal in 30/35 patients (85.7%), and the most common abnormality was temporomesial hypometabolism. The most commonly associated condition was myasthenia gravis (38 cases). Thymoma occurred in 76/348 patients (21.8%). Non-thymoma malignancies were uncommon [42/397 (10.6%)].Most patients have autoimmune or limbic encephalitis and corresponding abnormalities on neuroimaging. Other presentations include peripheral nerve hyperexcitability or Morvan syndromes, cerebellar syndromes, behavioral and cognitive changes, and more rarely movement disorders. The most commonly associated malignancy was thymoma and suggests a role for thymoma screening in CASPR2-related diseases.