Short dual antiplatelet therapy followed by P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy vs. prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention with second-generation drug-eluting stents: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
After percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with second-generation drug-eluting stent (DES), whether short dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) followed by single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) with a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor confers benefits compared with prolonged DAPT is unclear.Multiple electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Sciences, Ovid, and ScienceDirect, were searched to identify randomized clinical trials comparing ≤3 months of DAPT followed by P2Y12 inhibitor SAPT vs. 12 months of DAPT after PCI with second-generation DES implantation. The primary and co-primary outcomes of interest were major bleeding and stent thrombosis 1 year after randomization. Summary hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by fixed-effect and random-effects models. Multiple sensitivity analyses including random-effects models 95% CI adjustment were applied. A sensitivity analysis comparing trials using P2Y12 inhibitor SAPT with those using aspirin SAPT was performed. A total of five randomized clinical trials (32 145 patients) were available. Major bleeding was significantly lower in the patients assigned to short DAPT followed by P2Y12 inhibitor SAPT compared with those assigned to 12-month DAPT (random-effects model: HR 0.63, 95% 0.45-0.86). No significant differences between groups were observed in terms of stent thrombosis (random-effects model: HR 1.19, 95% CI 0.86-1.65) and the secondary endpoints of all-cause death (random-effects model: HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.70-1.03), myocardial infarction (random-effects model: HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.89-1.23), and stroke (random-effects model: HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.68-1.74). Sensitivity analyses showed overall consistent results. By comparing trials testing ≤3 months of DAPT followed by P2Y12 inhibitor SAPT vs. 12 months of DAPT with trials testing ≤3 months of DAPT followed by aspirin SAPT vs. 12-month of DAPT, there was no treatment-by-subgroup interaction for each endpoint. By combining all these trials, regardless of the type of SAPT, short DAPT was associated with lower major bleeding (random-effects model: HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.48-0.83) and no differences in stent thrombosis, all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke were observed between regimens.After second-generation DES implantation, 1-3 months of DAPT followed by P2Y12 inhibitor SAPT is associated with lower major bleeding and similar stent thrombosis, all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke compared with prolonged DAPT. Whether P2Y12 inhibitor SAPT is preferable to aspirin SAPT needs further investigation.