Secondary valve regurgitation in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction, and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.
Secondary mitral regurgitation and secondary tricuspid regurgitation due to heart failure (HF) remain challenging in almost every aspect: increasing prevalence, poor prognosis, notoriously elusive in diagnosis, and complexity of therapeutic management. Recently, defined HF subgroups according to three ejection fraction (EF) ranges (reduced, mid-range, and preserved) have stimulated a structured understanding of the HF syndrome but the role of secondary valve regurgitation (SVR) across the spectrum of EF remains undefined. This review expands this structured understanding by consolidating the underlying phenotype of myocardial impairment with each type of SVR. Specifically, the current understanding, epidemiological considerations, impact, public health burden, mechanisms, and treatment options of SVR are discussed separately for each lesion across the HF spectrum. Furthermore, this review identifies important gaps in knowledge, future directions for research, and provides potential solutions for diagnosis and treatment. Mastering the challenge of SVR requires a multidisciplinary collaborative effort, both, in clinical practice and scientific approach to optimize patient outcomes.