Second malignancies after treatment of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a report of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster study group.
Second malignant neoplasms pose a concern for survivors of childhood cancer. We evaluated incidence, type and risk factors for second malignant neoplasms in patients included in Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster protocols for childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma. 3590 patients <15 years of age at diagnosis registered between 01/1981 and 06/2010 were analyzed. Second malignant neoplasms were reported by the treating institutions and the German Childhood Cancer Registry. After median follow-up of 9.4 years (Quartile, Q1 6.7 and Q3 12.1) 95 second malignant neoplasms were registered (26 carcinomas including 9 basal cell carcinomas, 21 acute myeloid leukemias/myelodysplastic syndromes, 20 lymphoid malignancies, 12 CNS-tumors, and 16 other). Cumulative incidence at 20 years was 5.7±0.7%, standard incidence ratio excluding basal cell carcinomas was 19.8 (95% CI 14.5-26.5). Median time from initial diagnosis to second malignancy was 8.7 years (range: 0.2-30.3). Acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-type therapy, cumulative anthracycline dose, and cranial radiotherapy for brain tumor-development were significant risk factors in univariate analysis only. In multivariate analysis including risk factors significant in univariate analysis, female sex (HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.23-2.86, p=0.004), CNS-involvement (HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.03-4.88, p=0.042), lymphoblastic lymphoma (HR 2.60, 95% CI 1.69-3.97, p<0.001), and cancer-predisposing condition (HR 11.2, 95% CI 5.52-22.75, p<0.001) retained an independent risk. Carcinomas were the most frequent second malignant neoplasms after non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood followed by acute myeloid leukemia and lymphoid malignancies. Female sex, lymphoblastic lymphoma, CNS-involvement, or/and known cancer-predisposing condition were risk factors for second malignant neoplasm-development. Our findings set the basis for individualized long-term follow-up and risk assessment of new therapies.