ROHHAD(NET) Syndrome: Systematic review of the clinical timeline and recommendations for diagnosis and prognosis.
Rapid onset Obesity with Hypothalamic dysfunction, Hypoventilation, Autonomic Dysregulation and Neural Tumor Syndrome (ROHHHAD(NET)) is a rare and potentially fatal disease. No specific diagnostic biomarker is currently available, making prompt diagnosis challenging. Since its first definition in 2007, a complete clinical analysis leading to specific diagnosis and follow-up recommendations is still missing.To describe the clinical timeline of symptoms of ROHHAD(NET) and propose recommendations for diagnosis and follow-up.We conducted a systematic review of all ROHHAD(NET) case studies and report a new ROHHAD patient with early diagnosis and multidisciplinary care.All the articles that meet the definition of ROHHAD(NET) and provide chronological clinical data were reviewed according to the PRISMA individual patient data (IPD) guidelines. The data were grouped into 7 categories: hypothalamic dysfunction, autonomic dysregulation, hypoventilation, NET, psychiatric symptoms, other clinical manifestations, outcome.43 IPD were analyzed. The timeline of the disease shows rapid onset obesity followed shortly afterwards by hypothalamic dysfunction. Dysautonomia was reported at a median age of 4.95 years and hypoventilation at 5.33 years, or 2,2 years after the initial obesity. A NET was reported in 56% of the patients and 70% of these tumors were diagnosed within 2 years after initial weight gain.Since early diagnosis improves the clinical management and the prognosis in ROHHAD(NET), this diagnosis should be considered for any child with a rapid and early obesity. We propose guidance for systematic follow-up and advise multidisciplinary management with the aim of improving prognosis and life expectancy.