Risk and predictors of heart failure in sarcoidosis in a population-based cohort study from Sweden.
Previous studies showed a strong association between sarcoidosis and heart failure (HF) but did not consider risk stratification or risk factors to identify useful aetiological insights. We estimated overall and stratified HRs and identified risk factors for HF in sarcoidosis.Sarcoidosis cases were identified from the Swedish National Patient Register (NPR; ≥2 International Classification of Diseases-coded visits, 2003-2013) and matched to general population comparators. They were followed for HF in the NPR. Treated were cases who were dispensed ≥1 immunosuppressant ±3 months from the first sarcoidosis visit (2006-2013). Using Cox models, we estimated HRs adjusted for demographics and comorbidity and identified independent risk factors of HF together with their attributable fractions (AFs).During follow-up, 204 of 8574 sarcoidosis cases and 721 of 84 192 comparators were diagnosed with HF (rate 2.2 vs 0.7/1000 person-years, respectively). The HR associated with sarcoidosis was 2.43 (95% CI 2.06 to 2.86) and did not vary by age, sex or treatment status. It was higher during the first 2 years after diagnosis (HR 3.7 vs 1.9) and in individuals without a history of ischaemic heart disease (IHD; HR 2.7 vs 1.7). Diabetes, atrial fibrillation and other arrhythmias were the strongest independent clinical predictors of HF (HR 2.5 each, 2-year AF 20%, 16% and 12%, respectively).Although low, the HF rate was more than twofold increased in sarcoidosis compared with the general population, particularly right after diagnosis. IHD history cannot solely explain these risks, whereas ventricular arrhythmias indicating cardiac sarcoidosis appear to be a strong predictor of HF in sarcoidosis.
Authors: Marios Rossides, Susanna Kullberg, Johan Grunewald, Anders Eklund, Daniela Di Giuseppe, Johan Askling, Elizabeth V Arkema