Right ventricle assessment in patients with pulmonary embolism at low risk for death based on clinical models: an individual patient data meta-analysis.
Patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) at low risk for short-term death are candidates for home treatment or short-hospital stay. We aimed at determining whether the assessment of right ventricle dysfunction (RVD) or elevated troponin improves identification of low-risk patients over clinical models alone. Individual patient data meta-analysis of studies assessing the relationship between RVD or elevated troponin and short-term mortality in patients with acute PE at low risk for death based on clinical models (Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index, simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index or Hestia). The primary study outcome was short-term death defined as death occurring in hospital or within 30 days. Individual data of 5010 low-risk patients from 18 studies were pooled. Short-term mortality was 0.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-1.3]. RVD at echocardiography, computed tomography or B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)/N-terminal pro BNP (NT-proBNP) was associated with increased risk for short-term death (1.5 vs. 0.3%; OR 4.81, 95% CI 1.98-11.68), death within 3 months (1.6 vs. 0.4%; OR 4.03, 95% CI 2.01-8.08), and PE-related death (1.1 vs. 0.04%; OR 22.9, 95% CI 2.89-181). Elevated troponin was associated with short-term death (OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.06-7.26) and death within 3 months (OR 3.68, 95% CI 1.75-7.74). RVD assessed by echocardiography, computed tomography, or elevated BNP/NT-proBNP levels and increased troponin are associated with short-term death in patients with acute PE at low risk based on clinical models. RVD assessment, mainly by BNP/NT-proBNP or echocardiography, should be considered to improve identification of low-risk patients that may be candidates for outpatient management or short hospital stay.
Authors: Cecilia Becattini, Giorgio Maraziti, David R Vinson, Austin C C Ng, Paul L den Exter, Benoit Côté, Simone Vanni, Rami Doukky, Danai Khemasuwan, Anthony J Weekes, Thiago Horta Soares, Savas Ozsu, Hernan Polo Friz, Serhat Erol, Giancarlo Agnelli, David Jiménez