Reducing Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Extravasation in Neonates: A Quality Improvement Project.
Our objective was to reduce total and severe peripheral intravenous extravasation (PIVE) incidence by 40% in our neonatal intensive care unit.This quality improvement initiative was performed at an academic, free-standing suburban children’s hospital, in a level 4 neonatal intensive care unit from June 2017 to April 2018. Baseline extravasation data for a period of 6 months prior to the initiative were reviewed, along with a nursing knowledge questionnaire and random audits of catheter stabilization techniques. A Pareto chart and a key driver diagram were created to identify the most common causes of extravasations and lead to a series of process changes. We implemented 4 Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles: (1) dressing protocol for peripheral intravenous vascular (PIV) catheter securement that instituted standardized securement and safer equipment; (2) education on PIV assessment and maintenance, concentrating on hourly evaluation and documentation; (3) guidance algorithm for PIVE identification and treatment; and (4) escalation policy, limiting the number of placement attempts and increased use of a “superuser” team.The overall prevalence of extravasations decreased by 54%, from 73 preintervention to 40 at postintervention. At baseline, 52% (38/73) extravasations were severe; however, those in the severe category decreased by 35% (14/40) postintervention. The overall rate of adherence to the PIV catheter management algorithm approached 95%; whereas adherence to the securement guideline fluctuated between 80% and 98%.The implementation of these new practice recommendations along with the education has resulted in a decreased rate and severity of extravasation. Frequent audits and reinforcements are integral to sustainment and to ensure accountability for the implemented procedures.