Prognostic value of lower bone mineral density in predicting adverse cardiovascular disease in Asian women.
We investigated whether the evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) provides independent and incremental prognostic value for predicting atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in women.A total of 12 681 women aged 50-80 years (mean, 63.0±7.8 years) who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were retrospectively analysed. We assessed the hazard ratio (HR) for ASCVD events (ASCVD death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke) according to the BMD or a clinical diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis, with adjustment for clinical risk factors, including age, body mass index, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, current smoking and previous fracture. We also evaluated whether the addition of BMD or a clinical diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis to clinical risk factors improved the prediction for ASCVD events.In total, 468 women (3.7%) experienced ASCVD events during follow-up (median, 9.2 years). Lower BMD at the lumbar spine, femur neck and total hip was independently associated with higher risk for ASCVD events (adjusted HR per 1-standard deviation decrease in BMD: 1.16, p<0.001; 1.29, p<0.001; 1.38, p<0.001; respectively). A clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis was also independently associated with higher risk for ASCVD events (adjusted HR: 1.79, p<0.001). The addition of BMD or a clinical diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis to clinical risk factors demonstrated significant incremental value in discriminating ASCVD events (addition of total hip BMD, p for difference <0.001).The evaluation of BMD provides independent and incremental prognostic value for ASCVD in women and thus may improve risk stratification in women.
Authors: Jiesuck Park, Yeonyee Elizabeth Yoon, Kyoung Min Kim, In-Chang Hwang, Wonjae Lee, Goo-Yeong Cho