Prognostic value of cardiac cycle efficiency in children undergoing cardiac surgery: a prospective observational study.

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Cardiac cycle efficiency (CCE) derived from a pressure-recording analytical method is a unique parameter to assess haemodynamic performance from an energetic view. This study investigated changes of CCE according to an anatomical diagnosis group, and its association with early postoperative outcomes in children undergoing cardiac surgery.Ninety children were included with a ventricular septal defect (VSD; n=30), tetralogy of Fallot (TOF; n=40), or total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC; n=20). CCE along with other haemodynamic parameters, was recorded from anaesthesia induction until 48 h post-surgery. Predictive CCE (CCEp) was defined as the average of CCE at post-modified ultrafiltration and CCE at the end of surgery. The relationship between CCE and early outcomes was assessed by the comparison between the high-CCEp group (CCEp ≥75th centile) and the low-CCEp group (CCEp ≤25th centile).There was a significant time × diagnostic group interaction effect in the trend of CCE. Compared with the high-CCEp group (n=23), the low-CCEp group (n=22) required more inotropics post-surgery, had higher lactate concentrations at 8 and 24 h post-surgery, a longer intubation time and longer ICU stay, and higher frequency of peritoneal fluid.Perioperative changes of CCE vary according to anatomical diagnosis in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Children with TOF have an unfavourable trend of CCE compared with children with VSD or TAPVC. A decline in CCE is associated with adverse early postoperative outcomes.ChiCTR1800014996.

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