Prevention of Urinary Stones With Hydration (PUSH): Design and Rationale of a Clinical Trial.
Although maintaining high fluid intake is an effective, low-risk intervention for the secondary prevention of urinary stone disease (USD), many stone patients do not increase their fluid intake.We describe the rationale and design of the Prevention of Urinary Stones with Hydration (PUSH) study, a randomized trial of a multi-component behavioral intervention program to increase and maintain high fluid intake. Participants are randomized (1:1 ratio) to intervention or control arm. The target sample size is 1642 participants.Adults and adolescents ≥12 years of age with a symptomatic stone history and low urine volume are eligible. Exclusion criteria include infectious or monogenic causes of USD and comorbid conditions precluding increased fluid intake.All participants receive usual care and a smart water bottle and smartphone application. Participants in the intervention arm receive a fluid intake prescription and an adaptive program of behavioral interventions, including financial incentives, structured problem solving, and other automated adherence interventions. Control arm participants receive guideline-based fluid instructions.The primary endpoint is recurrence of a symptomatic stone over 24-months of follow-up. Secondary endpoints include changes in radiographic stone burden, 24-hour urine output, and urinary symptoms.Periodic 24-hour urine volumes may not fully reflect daily behavior.With its highly novel features, the PUSH study will address an important healthcare problem.