Prevalence and Mortality due to COVID-19 in HIV Co-Infected Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was defined as a species of beta coronavirus causing atypical respiratory disease in humans. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented health and economic crisis worldwide. Little is known about the specifics of its influence on people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA). In this study, we aim to investigate the prevalence and mortality in PLWHA co-infected with COVID-19.The databases PUBMED, EMBASE, BioRxiv, and medRxiv were searched up to 9 March 2021 to explore the prevalence and mortality rate of COVID-19 in PLWHA. Cohort studies and case series meeting the inclusion criteria were included in this review.We identified 14 eligible studies, 9 of which were cohort and 5 were case series. A total of 203,761 patients with COVID-19 were identified (7718 PLWHA vs. 196,043 non-PLWHA). Meta-analyses estimated the prevalence and mortality rate of COVID-19 in PLWHA was 0.774% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00393-0.01517] and 8.814% (95% CI 0.05766-0.13245) respectively. COVID-19 co-infected PLWHA do not seem to be associated with higher mortality, as compared to non-PLWHA [relative risk (RR) 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.06)]. The presence of comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, RR 5.2 (95% CI 4.25-6.36), hypertension and chronic cardiac disease, RR 4.2 (95% CI 1.09-16.10), and chronic kidney disease, RR 8.43 (95% CI 5.49-12.93) were associated with an increased mortality in COVID-19 co-infected PLWHA.The estimated prevalence and mortality rate of COVID-19 in PLWHA were 0.774% and 8.814%, respectively. Since most of the included studies used unmatched populations, comparisons between PLWHA and non-PLWHA should be interpreted with caution. Further investigations are needed for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between cluster of differentiation 4 cell count, HIV viral load, antiretroviral therapy, and COVID-19 related prognosis in PLWHA.
Authors: Min Liang, Ning Luo, Mafeng Chen, Chunna Chen, Shivank Singh, Shantanu Singh, Shifan Tan