Precision medicine approach to dialysis including incremental and decremental dialysis regimens.

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Conventional standardization of haemodialysis for treatment of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is predicated upon the fixed construct of one disease stage and one patient category. Increasingly recognized are subgroups of patients for whom less-intensive haemodialysis, such as incremental or decremental haemodialysis, could be employed.Almost 30% of patients with incident ESKD have clinical and residual kidney function (RFK) parameters that could accommodate less-intensive haemodialysis. In one study, patients with incident ESKD and substantial RKF treated with low-dose haemodialysis had similar mortality rate as those treated with standard-dose haemodialysis, adding to the evidence that endogenous kidney function — when present — can complement less-intensive haemodialysis schedules. Hazards related to incremental haemodialysis include insidious development of fluid overload and higher rates of fluid removal. Finally, deintensification of haemodialysis treatment could be employed in patients with ESKD who seek conservative care.A shift in approach to ESKD from a dichotomous frame — disease presence versus absence — to stages of dialysis-dependent kidney disease, each stage associated with attuned haemodialysis intensity, has been proposed. Haemodialysis standardization and personalization — often considered mutually exclusive — can be combined in incremental haemodialysis. Data from ongoing and future randomized clinical trials, comparing less-intensive with standard haemodialysis schedules, are required to change practice.

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