Population Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics of Ceftazidime in Neonates and Young Infants: Dosing Optimization for Neonatal Sepsis.

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Ceftazidime is a third-generation cephalosporin with high activity against many pathogens. But the ambiguity and diversity of the dosing regimens in neonates and young infants impair access to effective treatment. Thus, we conducted a population pharmacokinetic study of ceftazidime in this vulnerable population and recommended a model-based dosage regimen to optimize sepsis therapy. Totally 146 neonates and young infants (gestational age (GA): 36-43.4 weeks, postnatal age (PNA): 1-81 days, current weight (CW): 900-4500 grams) were enrolled based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Ceftazidime bloods samples (203) were obtained using the opportunistic sampling strategy and determined by the high-performance liquid chromatography. The population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis was conducted by nonlinear mixed effects model (NONMEM). A one-compartment model with first-order elimination best described the pharmacokinetic data. Covariate analysis showed the significance of GA, PNA, and CW on developmental pharmacokinetics. Monte Carlo simulation was performed based on above covariates and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In the newborns with PNA ≤ 3 days (MIC=8 mg/L), the dose regimen was 25 mg/kg twice daily (BID). For the newborns with PNA > 3 days (MIC=16 mg/L), the optimal dose was 30 mg/kg three times daily (TID) for those with GA ≤ 37 weeks and 40 mg/kg TID for those with GA > 37 weeks. Overall, on the basis of the developmental population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis covering the whole range of neonates and young infants, the evidence-based ceftazidime dosage regimens were proposed to optimize neonatal early-onset and late-onset sepsis therapy.

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Authors: Xue Li, Hui Qi, Fei Jin, Bu-Fan Yao, Yue-E Wu, Yu-Jie Qi, Chen Kou, Xi-Rong Wu, Xiao-Jing Luo, Yan-Hua Shen, Xu Zheng, Yong-Hong Wang, Fang Xu, Wei-Wei Jiao, Jie-Qiong Li, Jing Xiao, Yi-Ning Dong, Bin Du, Hai-Yan Shi, Bao-Ping Xu, A-Dong Shen, Wei Zhao