Persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by parathyromatosis and supernumerary parathyroid glands in a patient on haemodialysis.
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common high-risk factor for mortality in end-stage renal disease, and parathyromatosis and supernumerary parathyroid glands are very rare causes of persistent SHPT. Preoperative diagnosis and removal of all hyperplastic parathyroid glands are challenging. We report a rare case of persistent SHPT due to parathyromatosis and supernumerary parathyroid glands and successful management by multiple imaging modalities.A 53-year-old Chinese woman on haemodialysis experienced discomfort due to itching and bone pain due to persistent SHPT after parathyroidectomy. The supernumerary parathyroid glands and parathyromatosis were detected by multiple imaging modalities, including 99mTc-sestamibi (99mTc-MIBI) scans, ultrasonography and four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) and then excised; pathological confirmation was performed. During follow-up, her serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were stable in the appropriate ranges, and no complications arose.Because of persistent SHPH after parathyroidectomy in patients with haemodialysis, multiple imaging modalities, including 99mTc-MIBI scans, 4D-CT and ultrasonography, are helpful for detecting supernumerary parathyroid glands and parathyromatoses. Accurate preoperative localization of this rare lesion is important for management, enabling the removal of all affected parathyroid tissues.