Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, and Cervical Adenitis Syndrome: Relapse and Tonsillar Regrowth After Childhood Tonsillectomy.

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Tonsillectomy is an effective treatment for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome, but the role of adenoidectomy, as well as later tonsillar regrowth, is unclear. To find out if the volume of lymphoid tissue is pivotal to the efficacy, we analyzed the association between the relapse of the symptoms of PFAPA syndrome and regrowth of tonsillar tissue after tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy.Prospective cohort study of operated PFAPA pateints.We invited all patients that had undergone tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy due to PFAPA syndrome at the Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland, between the years 1990 and 2007, at the age of ≤12 years, to a follow-up visit, after an average period of 9.8 years after their diagnoses. Out of the 132 invited, 94 (71%) participated in the follow-up study.At the follow-up study visit, 5 (5%) of the 94 PFAPA syndrome cases experienced recurrent fevers. The regrowth of palatine tonsillar tissue was seen in four of them (80%) as compared to 19/89 (21%) of symptom-free patients (P = .006). Two of the patients with clear PFAPA relapse at the time of the study visit were reoperated with clear effect on the symptoms. At the time of the study visit, 59/63 (94%) of the patients who had undergone adenotonsillectomy and 30/31 of the patients (97%) who had undergone tonsillectomy earlier were free of fever flares (P = .99).Palatine tonsil regrowth was associated with PFAPA syndrome relapse after tonsillectomy. Reoperation might be a treatment option in these patients.4 Laryngoscope, 2021.

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Authors: Ulla Lantto, Petri Koivunen, Terhi Tapiainen, Marjo Renko