Patient-reported outcomes for nipple reconstruction: Review of literature.
There is currently no validated patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) that is specific to nipple-areola complex (NAC) reconstruction. This paper evaluates all patient-reported outcomes for NAC reconstruction in the literature.Systematic literature searches of The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were conducted to identify all primary studies with patient-reported outcomes for NAC reconstruction. The primary outcome measures were patient satisfaction rates for appearance and symmetry of NAC reconstruction.Fifty-nine papers were included in this review. Reported patient satisfaction was generally high, with the pooled average satisfaction rate for appearance being 81.9% and symmetry 80.3%. 89.5% of respondents would do it again and 94.8% would recommend it to others. There is no standardised or validated PROM specific to NAC reconstruction and this contributes to a lack of conclusive findings from studies in this area.There is a need for a validated PROM that is specific to NAC reconstruction, in order to serve as a standardised outcome assessment to guide further research and improve patient care.