Paediatric Cardiology

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  • COVID-19 related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C): a case series from a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Qatar.
    Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a severe complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children, which is increasingly being reported worldwide. Here we report the first case series of 7 children diagnosed with MIS-C in Qatar.Clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 positive patients admitted to Sidra Medicine, Qatar from June to October 2020, […]
  • Geographical variation in infant mortality due to congenital heart disease in the USA: a population-based cohort study.
    Little is known about geographical variation in infant mortality due to congenital heart disease (CHD) and the social determinants of health that might mediate such variation. We aimed to examine US county-level estimates of infant mortality due to CHD to understand geographical patterns and factors that might influence variation in mortality.This US population-based cohort study […]
  • The Heart of the Matter: Secondary Hypogammaglobulinemia and Constrictive Pericarditis.
    Constrictive pericarditis is the final common result of a number of processes that affect the pericardium. Establishing the diagnosis and determining the underlying etiology of constrictive pericarditis are often a diagnostic rendezvous. Here, we describe a patient who presented to the general practitioner with edema, ascites, and weight gain and was found to have constrictive […]
  • A Real-time Risk-Prediction Model for Pediatric Venous Thromboembolic Events.
    Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism (HA-VTE) is an increasing cause of morbidity in pediatric populations, yet identification of high-risk patients remains challenging. General pediatric models have been derived from case-control studies, but few have been validated. We developed and validated a predictive model for pediatric HA-VTE using a large, retrospective cohort.The derivation cohort included 111 352 admissions to […]
  • The clinical value of passive leg raising plus ultrasound to predict fluid responsiveness in children after cardiac surgery.
    There are few non-invasive monitoring methods that can reliably predict fluid responsiveness (FR) in children. Here, we interrogate the value of doppler ultrasound evaluation of passive leg raising (PLR)-induced changes in stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) as a predictor of FR in children with mechanical ventilation after congenital cardiac surgery.A total of 40 […]
  • Junctional Tachycardia as a Diagnostic Criterion in Acute Rheumatic Fever.
    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is an acute inflammatory process resulting in rheumatic carditis, one of the most common acquired heart diseases in youth. Among the clinical manifestations of carditis, pathologic valve regurgitation and atrioventricular block are included in the criteria for the diagnosis of ARF. Besides atrioventricular block, ARF may often present with other arrhythmias, […]
  • Survival Trends and Syndromic Esophageal Atresia.
    Presence of a syndrome (or association) is predictive of poor survival in esophageal atresia (EA). However, most reports rely on historical patient outcomes, limiting their usefulness when estimating risk for neonates born today. We hypothesized improved syndromic EA survival due to advances in neonatal care.A retrospective single-center review of survival in 626 consecutive patients with […]
  • Paediatric dilated cardiomyopathy in Khartoum state, Sudan: a prospective study.
    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the heart muscle that affects ventricular function; it is a debilitating disease that can lead to heart failure and death in children. There is a lack of good epidemiological data about paediatric DCM in Sudan or in sub-Saharan Africa.To study the incidence, causes and outcome of DCM among […]
  • Delayed diagnosis in children with congenital heart disease: a mixed-method study.
    Delayed diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) causes significant morbidity and mortality. We aimed to determine the proportion of delayed diagnosis of CHD and factors related to the delayed diagnosis.A prospective cohort study with mixed-methods was conducted in Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Patients aged View the full article @ BMC pediatrics Get PDF with […]
  • Eating behaviour, physical activity, TV exposure and sleeping habits in five year olds: a latent class analysis.
    Diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and sleep time are considered major contributory factors of the increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. The aims of this study were to (1) identify behavioural clusters of 5 year old children based on lifestyle behaviours, (2) explore potential determinants of class membership, and (3) to determine if class […]
  • Juvenile haemochromatosis.
    Juvenile haemochromatosis is a severe inherited iron-loading disorder that can present in children and adolescents. Typical manifestations include heart failure, endocrine failure (including diabetes and hypogonadism), cirrhosis, and arthropathy. Compared with HFE haemochromatosis, juvenile haemochromatosis affects female and male individuals similarly, presents at a younger age, and causes multiple organ dysfunction; the principle of iron […]
  • A Previously Healthy 18-Year-Old Male With Fever, Arrhythmia, and Shock.
    A male individual aged 18 years with no significant past medical history presented with fever, headache, dry cough, and chest pain. On clinical examination, he had tachycardia and hypotension needing intravenous fluid resuscitation and inotropic support. A chest radiograph revealed streaky lung opacities, and he was treated with antibiotics for suspected community-acquired pneumonia complicated by […]
  • Addition of cystatin C predicts cardiovascular death better than creatinine in intensive care.
    Decreased kidney function increases cardiovascular risk and predicts poor survival. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by creatinine may theoretically be less accurate in the critically ill. This observational study compares long-term cardiovascular mortality risk by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) creatinine equation; Caucasian, Asian, paediatric and adult cohort (CAPA) cystatin C equation and […]
  • Challenge in diagnosis of late onset necrotizing enterocolitis in a term infant: a case report.
    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a common devastating inflammatory gastrointestinal disease and frequently occurs in premature infants. Here, we reported a case of late-onset NEC in a term neonate with good outcome after surgery for long-term follow-up.Ten-week-old male came to emergency unit due to prolonged diarrhea and abdominal distention. He was born at gestational age of […]
  • Exercise Performance in Adolescents with Fontan Physiology (From the Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Public Data Set).
    In the pediatric population, exercise capacity differs between females and males and the gap widens through adolescence. However, specific age- and sex-based changes in adolescents with congenital heart disease and Fontan palliation have not been reported. The purpose of the current study is to identify age- and sex-specific changes in exercise performance at peak and […]
  • The Burden of Radiation Exposure During Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defect.
    Radiation reduction in the pediatric cardiac catheterization laboratory is well-suited for targeted quality improvement (QI) interventions. Transcatheter atrial septal defect (ASD) closure was chosen for this QI project based on a homogenous procedural population and inter-operator variability in radiation usage, with the aim to reduce radiation exposure during ASD device closure by 50% over 1 […]
  • Trends in Acute Myocarditis Related Pediatric Hospitalizations in the United States, 2007-2016.
    There has been little exploration of acute myocarditis trends in children despite notable advancements in care over the past decade.  We explored trends in pediatric hospitalizations for acute myocarditis from 2007-2016 in the United States (US). This was a retrospective, serial cross-sectional study of the National Inpatient Sample database from 2007 to 2016, identifying patients […]
  • Clinical outcomes of children receiving ABO-incompatible versus ABO-compatible heart transplantation: a multicentre cohort study.
    ABO-incompatible heart transplantation increases donor availability in young children and is evolving into standard of care in children younger than 2 years. Previous smaller studies suggest similar outcomes to ABO-compatible heart transplantation, but persisting alterations of the immune system in ABO-incompatible recipients might increase the risk of some infections or benefit the graft owing to […]
  • Factors linked to severe outcomes in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) in the USA: a retrospective surveillance study.
    Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a newly identified and serious health condition associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical manifestations vary widely among patients with MIS-C, and the aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with severe outcomes.In this retrospective surveillance study, patients who met the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention […]
  • Hypertension in adolescents: diagnosis, treatment, and implications.
    Hypertension is a major modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factor and its presence in childhood is associated with the presence and burden of atherosclerosis. Moreover, hypertension tracks from childhood to adulthood and is associated with adverse cardiac changes and vascular damage that in turn are associated with premature cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Therefore, the early identification […]
  • Rheumatic heart disease in Indigenous young peoples.
    Indigenous children and young peoples live with an inequitable burden of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease. In this Review, we focus on the epidemiological burden and lived experience of these conditions for Indigenous young peoples in Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. We outline the direct and indirect drivers of rheumatic heart disease risk […]
  • Differences in Lifetime Earning Potential for Pediatric Subspecialists.
    Our 2011 report, reflecting data from 2007-2008, demonstrated that, for many pediatric subspecialties, pursuing fellowship training was a negative financial decision when compared with practicing as a general pediatrician. We provide an updated analysis on the financial impact of pediatric fellowship training and model interventions that can influence the results.We estimated the financial returns a […]
  • COVID-19 and Gender Disparities in Pediatric Cardiologists with Dependent Care Responsibilities.
    The COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affects females in the home and workplace. This study aimed to acquire information regarding the gender-specific effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on aspects of professional and personal lives of a subset of pediatric cardiologists. We sent an online multiple-choice survey to a listserv of Pediatric Cardiologists. Data collected included demographics, dependent […]
  • Electrocardiographic pattern of apparently healthy African adolescent athletes in Nigeria.
    Strategies to prevent sudden cardiac death (SCD) among young athletes have become topical worldwide and unrecognized cardiac pathology has been identified as a leading cause. Black ethnicity has been reported as an independent predictor of abnormal electrocardiography (ECG) findings among athletes and the frequency and significance of training-related ECG findings versus findings suggestive of an underlying […]
  • Long-term outcomes in children with absent pulmonary valve syndrome: it is not just fixing the heart.
    Absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APV) is a rare condition usually associated with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Some infants develop respiratory failure from bronchial compression and the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome is unknown. We aimed to investigate the outcomes of APV and the need for long-term ventilation (LTV).Retrospective single-centre review of patients diagnosed with APV between 2007 […]
  • Impact of Acute and Chronic Hypoxia-Ischemia on the Transitional Circulation.
    The transition from intrauterine life to extrauterine existence encompasses significant cardiorespiratory adaptations. These include rapid lung aeration and increase in pulmonary blood flow (PBF). Perinatal asphyxia and fetal growth restriction can severely hamper this transition. Hypoxia is the common denominator in these 2 disease states, with the former characterized by acute insult and the latter […]
  • Unexpected death in children with severe congenital heart defects in Norway 2004-2016.
    Updated knowledge on the rates and causes of death among children with severe congenital heart defects (CHDs) is needed to further improve treatment and survival. This study investigated nationwide mortality rates in children with severe CHDs with an emphasis on unexpected mortality unrelated to cardiac intervention.Data on all pregnancies and live-born children in Norway from […]
  • Associations of Maternal Cardiovascular Health in Pregnancy With Offspring Cardiovascular Health in Early Adolescence.
    Pregnancy may be a key window to optimize cardiovascular health (CVH) for the mother and influence lifelong CVH for her child.To examine associations between maternal gestational CVH and offspring CVH.This cohort study used data from the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study (examinations: July 2000-April 2006) and HAPO Follow-Up Study (examinations: February 2013-December 2016). […]
  • Palliative Care Referrals in Cardiac Disease.
    With evidence of benefits of pediatric palliative care (PPC) integration, we sought to characterize subspecialty PPC referral patterns and end of life (EOL) care in pediatric advanced heart disease (AHD).In this retrospective cohort study, we compared inpatient pediatric (<21 years) deaths due to AHD in 2 separate 3-year epochs: 2007-2009 (early) and 2015-2018 (late). Demographics, […]
  • Clinical aspects for differential diagnosis of Kawasaki disease shock syndrome: a case control study.
    Because of the absence of a specific diagnostic test and pathognomonic clinical features, physicians must rely on the presence of specific clinical criteria and laboratory data that support the diagnosis of KD. To help clinicians distinguish KD, KDSS, septic shock, and TSS earlier, we suggest differential diagnosis and treatment guideline.Medical records of immunocompetent patients who […]
  • Effects of nutrition therapy on growth, inflammation and metabolism in immature infants: a study protocol of a double-blind randomized controlled trial (ImNuT).
    Current nutritional management of infants born very preterm results in significant deficiency of the essential fatty acids (FAs) arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The impact of this deficit on brain maturation and inflammation mediated neonatal morbidities are unknown. The aim of this study is to determine whether early supply of ARA and DHA […]
  • Diagnostic yield and appropriate indication of upper endoscopy in Jordanian children.
    Upper endoscopy is an essential tool for diagnosing pediatric gastrointestinal issues. This study aimed to assess the indications, diagnostic yields, concordance between histopathological and endoscopic findings and suitability of upper endoscopies performed at a tertiary university hospital in Jordan.Hospital records of children who underwent upper endoscopy were retrospectively reviewed. Demographics, endoscopic details (e.g., indications, findings […]
  • Identification of a novel GRIN2D variant in a neonate with intractable epileptic encephalopathy-a case report.
    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. The functional NMDA receptors are heterotetramers consisting mainly of two GluN1 and two GluN2 subunits. GluN2 is encoded by the GRIN2D gene. A few case series have shown that GRIN2D variants are linked to developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. […]
  • Mental Health Disorders in Children With Congenital Heart Disease.
    Data on anxiety, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking for youth with congenital heart disease (CHD), particularly those with simple CHD. This study aims to characterize these disorders in youth with CHD compared to those without CHD.A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted by using the electronic medical records of a large tertiary care hospital […]
  • Coronary Artery Aneurysms as a Feature of Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis.
    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is an antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis that primarily affects small vessels. The disease typically affects the respiratory tract and kidneys but has also been known to involve the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, thyroid, and liver. Cardiac involvement is rare. Coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) are an extremely uncommon finding, with only 1 reported […]
  • Effect of Losartan or Atenolol on Children and Young Adults with Bicuspid Aortic Valve and Dilated Aorta.
    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) aortopathy is defined by dilation of the aortic root (AoRt) and/or ascending aorta (AsAo), and increases risk for aortic aneurysm and dissection. The effects of medical prophylaxis on aortic growth rates in moderate to severe bicuspid aortopathy have not yet been evaluated. This was a single-center retrospective study of young patients […]
  • Is Aortic Z-score an Appropriate Index of Beneficial Drug Effect in Clinical Trials in Aortic Aneurysm Disease?
    Aortic Z-score (Z-score) is utilized in clinical trials to monitor the effect of medications on aortic dilation rate in Marfan (MFS) patients. Z-scores are reported in relation to body surface area (BSA) and therefore are a function of height and weight. However, an information void exists regarding natural, non-pharmacological changes in Z-scores as children age. […]
  • Size at birth and cognitive function among rural adolescents: a life course epidemiology study protocol of the Kisalaya cohort in Mysuru, South India.
    It is proven that adverse intrauterine environment results in ‘early life programming,’ alterations in metabolism and physiological development of the fetus, often termed as ‘Developmental Origins of Health and Disease’ (DOHaD) resulting in a smaller size at birth, greater non-communicable diseases (NCD) risk factors during childhood and adolescence, and cardiometabolic disorders in adulthood. Nevertheless, very […]
  • Safety of sildenafil in premature infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (SILDI-SAFE): a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, sequential dose-escalating, double-masked, safety study.
    Pulmonary hypertension is a deadly complication of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the most common pulmonary morbidity of prematurity. Despite these catastrophic consequences, no evidence-based therapies are available for the prevention of pulmonary hypertension in this population. Sildenafil is a potent pulmonary vasodilator approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in […]
  • Problems with Bazett QTc correction in paediatric screening of prolonged QTc interval.
    Bazett formula is frequently used in paediatric screening for the long QT syndrome (LQTS) and proposals exist that using standing rather than supine electrocardiograms (ECG) improves the sensitivity of LQTS diagnosis. Nevertheless, compared to adults, children have higher heart rates (especially during postural provocations) and Bazett correction is also known to lead to artificially prolonged […]
  • Novel facial characteristics in congenital rubella syndrome: a study of 115 cases in a cardiac hospital of Bangladesh.
    To establish novel facial characteristics unique to congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) as prediagnostic criteria to supplement disease diagnosis in patients with or without a history of maternal rubella infection.An analysis of 115 CRS case series (2018-2020) based on the presence of any of the triad features.Outpatient department of a tertiary care referral cardiac hospital in […]
  • Hypoxic/ischemic hits predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis in (near) term infants with congenital heart disease: a case control study.
    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease that is relatively frequently diagnosed in term infants with congenital heart disease (CHD), compared with term infants without CHD, in whom NEC is rare. The exact pathogenesis of NEC in term infants with CHD is unknown, but it is hypothesized that ischemia of the intestines plays a pivotal […]
  • “It brought hope and peace in my heart:” Caregivers perceptions on kangaroo mother care services in Malawi.
    Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an effective intervention for preterm and low birth weight infants. Effective implementation of KMC relies on a multidisciplinary team centering on the newborn’s caregiver, who delivers care with support from health care workers. This study explored the experiences of caregivers on the implementation of KMC.We conducted a descriptive qualitative study […]
  • Contemporary epidemiology of rising atrial septal defect trends across USA 1991-2016: a combined ecological geospatiotemporal and causal inferential study.
    Cardiovascular anomalies are the largest group of congenital anomalies and the major cause of death in young children, with various data linking rising atrial septal defect incidence (ASDI) with prenatal cannabis exposure. Objectives / Hypotheses. Is cannabis associated with ASDI in USA? Is this relationship causal?Geospatiotemporal cohort study, 1991-2016. Census populations of adults, babies, congenital […]
  • Early versus delayed insulin pump therapy in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: results from the multicentre, prospective diabetes follow-up DPV registry.
    Although continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy (ie, insulin pump therapy) is associated with improved metabolic control compared with multiple daily insulin injections in children with type 1 diabetes, it is unclear when it is best to start it after diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to compare the outcomes between early and delayed start of […]
  • Hemiscrotal agenesis: a novel phenotype of a rare malformation.
    Hemiscrotal agenesis (HSA) is an exceedingly rare congenital anomaly in scrotal development. It is characterized by unilateral absence of scrotal skin with intact midline raphe. In the English literature, only seven patients were diagnosed with HSA. Herein, we report a 14-month-old boy with HSA, unilateral cryptorchidism and a perineal skin tag. Additionally, the patient had […]
  • Value of Galectin-3 assay in children with heart failure secondary to congenital heart diseases: a prospective study.
    Galectin-3 is a new biomarker, which plays an important role in tissue inflammation, cardiac remodeling, and fibrosis. It can be readily measured in the circulation to detect early heart failure (HF). This study aimed to assess the value of galectin-3 assay in early diagnosis of children with heart failure secondary to congenital heart disease (CHD) […]
  • “It’s My Job to Love Him”: Parenting Adolescents and Young Adults With Advanced Cancer.
    Parents of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with serious illness experience enormous stress as they navigate their child’s illness. In this study, we aimed to elucidate AYA parental perspectives on the advanced cancer experience, including what parents find challenging and their sources of strength.Parents of AYAs aged 14 to 24 years old being treated for […]
  • Effect of Adenotonsillectomy on Cardiac function in Children Age 5-13 years with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
    Changes in left ventricular structure and function have been previously described in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We aimed to determine if these structural and functional cardiac changes are reversible after treatment of OSA with adenotonsillectomy. Children aged 5-13 years with OSA and matched healthy controls were recruited. Adenotonsillectomy occurred within 1 month after […]
  • Severe Lymphatic Disorder Resolved With MEK Inhibition in a Patient With Noonan Syndrome and SOS1 Mutation.
    Noonan syndrome is a multiorgan system disorder mediated by genetic defects along the rat sarcoma-mitogen-activated protein kinase (RAS-MAPK) pathway known as RASopathies. It is the second most common syndromic cause of congenital heart disease and, in ∼20% of the cases, is associated with severe lymphatic disorders, including chylothorax and protein-losing enteropathy. Recently, we reported on […]
  • Motor Impairment in Children With Congenital Heart Defects: A Systematic Review.
    With improvements in survival rates in newborns with congenital heart defects (CHDs), focus has now shifted toward enhancing neurodevelopmental outcomes across their life span.To systematically review the prevalence and extent of motor difficulties in infants, children, and adolescents with CHD requiring open-heart surgery.Data sources included Embase, Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied […]
  • MIS-C and Cardiac Conduction Abnormalities.
    Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has spread through the pediatric population during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Our objective for the study was to report the prevalence of conduction anomalies in MIS-C and identify predictive factors for the conduction abnormalities.We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients <21 years of age presenting […]
  • Screening for High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.
    Prevalence of hypertension (both primary and secondary) in children and adolescents in the US ranges from 3% to 4%. Primary hypertension in children and adolescents occurs primarily in children older than 13 years and has no known cause but is associated with several risk factors, including family history and higher body mass index. Secondary hypertension […]
  • Characteristics and Longer-Term Outcomes of Contemporary Patients <18 Years of Age with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.
    We describe characteristics and outcomes of contemporary pediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (PHC) patients. We studied 398 consecutive pediatric HC patients (<18 years, median 14 years, 65% boys) seen at our center between 2002-2018. Baseline clinical and pediatric echocardiographic data was collected. Left ventricular outflow tract gradient (LVOTG), LV fractional shortening and Z-score for left ventricular (LV) […]
  • Long-term cardiovascular disease mortality among 160 834 5-year survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer: an American population-based cohort study.
    Our aim was to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in US 5-year survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer compared with those of the general population and contemporaneous 5-year survivors of childhood cancer.A total of 160 834 5-year AYA cancer survivors (aged 15-39 years at diagnosis) were included, representing 2 239 […]
  • Influence of Pregnancy on Aortic Diameter in Women with the Turner Syndrome.
    Women with Turner syndrome (TS) have high prevalence of cardiovascular anomalies. Literature suggests pregnancy is associated with a higher dissection risk, presumably preceded by aortic dilatation. Whether the aortic diameter truly changes during pregnancy in TS is not well investigated. This study aims to evaluate ascending aortic diameter change during pregnancy and reports on cardiac […]
  • Where the congenital heart disease meets the pulmonary arterial hypertension, FLNA matters: a case report and literature review.
    Pediatric patients with genetic disorders have a higher incidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) regardless of their heart defects. Filamin A (FLNA) mutation is recently recognized to be associated with pediatric pulmonary disorders, however, the clinical courses of PAH related to the mutation were reported in limited cases. Here, we presented a case and pooled […]
  • Postnatal impact of a prenatally diagnosed double aortic arch.
    A double aortic arch (DAA) is increasingly identified before birth; however, there are no published data describing the postnatal outcome of a large prenatal cohort.To describe the associations, symptoms and impact of prenatally diagnosed DAA.Retrospective review of consecutive cases seen at two fetal cardiology units from 2014 to 2019. Clinical records including symptoms and assessment […]
  • Morphology of vascular ring arch anomalies influences prognosis and management.
    This study aimed to explore the anatomical features of aortic arch anomalies associated with vascular rings, hoping to identify those which may increase the risk of symptomatic presentation and surgical intervention.This was a retrospective observational study at a single cardiac unit. Individuals diagnosed with an aortic arch anomaly, either isolated or non-isolated, between June 2014 […]
  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus of the Preterm Infant.
    Postnatal ductal closure is stimulated by rising oxygen tension and withdrawal of vasodilatory mediators (prostaglandins, nitric oxide, adenosine) and by vasoconstrictors (endothelin-1, catecholamines, contractile prostanoids), ion channels, calcium flux, platelets, morphologic maturity, and a favorable genetic predisposition. A persistently patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants can have clinical consequences. Decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance, especially […]