Outcomes in acute kidney injury in noncritically ill patients lately referred to nephrologist in a developing country: a comparison of AKIN and KDIGO criteria.
In low-middle-income countries (LMICs), data regarding acute kidney injury (AKI) are scarce. AKI patients experience delayed diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate whether delayed nephrologist consultation (NC) affected outcomes of AKI patients and compare Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO).An observational, retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary public hospital in an LMIC.Overall, 103 AKI patients were analysed. In-hospital mortality was 61.16%, and dialysis was required in 38.83%. NC took place after 48 h in 68.93% of the patients. Mean time for NC was 5.22 ± 4.30 days. At NC, serum creatinine was 4.48 (±3.40) mg/dL and blood urea nitrogen was 68.21 (± 35.02) mg/dL. The AKIN and KDIGO stage stratifications were identical; KDIGO stage 3 was seen in 58.25% of the patients. The group with NC > 4 days had a mortality rate of 74.46% and the group with NC ≤ 4 days had a mortality rate of 50% (p = 0.011). Multivariate analysis showed that haemodialysis was independently associated with mortality. NC > 4 days was associated with death [odds ratio 2.66 (95% confidence interval, 1.36-4.35), p = 0.001]. Logistic regression showed an OR of 1.20 (95% CI, 1.05-1.37) (p = 0.008) for each day of delayed NC.Delayed NC was associated with mortality even after adjustments, as was haemodialysis, though marginally. In AKI patients with NC > 4 days, there was a high prevalence of KDIGO stage 3, and AKIN and KDIGO criteria were identical.