Neurological manifestations associated with COVID-19: a review and a call for action.
While the epidemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread globally, more and more evidences are collected about the presence of neurological manifestations and symptoms associated with it. A systematic review has been performed of papers published until 5 April 2020. 29 papers related to neurological manifestations associated with COVID-19 were examined. The results show presence of central and peripheral nervous system manifestations related to coronavirus. Neurological manifestations, or NeuroCOVID, are part of the COVID-19 clinical picture, but questions remain regarding the frequency and severity of CNS symptoms, the mechanism of action underlying neurological symptoms, and the relationship of symptoms with the course and severity of COVID-19. Further clinical, epidemiological, and basic science research is urgently needed to understand and address neurological sequalae of COVID-19. Concomitant risk factors or determinants (e.g. demographic factors, comorbidities, or available biomarkers) that may predispose a person with COVID-19 to neurological manifestations also need to be identified. The review shows that although more and more papers are reporting neurological manifestations associated with COVID-19; however, many items remain unclear and this uncertainty calls for a global action that requires close coordination and open-data sharing between hospitals, academic institutions and the fast establishment of harmonised research priorities and research consortia to face the NeuroCOVID-19 complications.