Mycobacterium abscessus – an uncommon, but important cause of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis – case report and literature review.

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Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a form of therapy for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), and peritonitis is a known complication. Mycobacterium (M) species associated peritonitis in PD patients is uncommon. Our experience of managing PD associated peritonitis caused by M abscessus in a middle-aged man with ESKD due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is shared in this article with a review of the literature on this condition.A 49-year old man presented to our unit with symptoms of peritonitis and cloudy PD effluent. Initial analysis of PD fluid showed Gram stain was negative, with no organism grown. Empirical PD peritonitis treatment with intra-peritoneal antibiotics did not improve his symptoms and he required intravenous antibiotics, PD catheter removal and a switch to haemodialysis. Cultures of the PD fluid later grew M abscessus, and the antibiotic regimen was changed appropriately, leading to clinical improvement.M abscessus associated peritonitis in PD patients is rare. It needs to be borne in mind when clinical improvement is not seen with standard broad-spectrum antibiotics, especially in situations where the PD fluid is initially deemed to be culture negative. PD fluid samples should be sent for acid-fast bacillus and if detected, should be further analysed with genome-wide sequencing to confirm the species of the Mycobacterium. Prompt removal of the catheter with peritoneal washout is critical for clinical improvement.

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