Mortality after surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism: results from a nationwide cohort.

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Contemporary patients with primary hyperparathyroidism are often diagnosed with mildly raised serum calcium levels. Previous studies have reported increased mortality in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. This retrospective cohort study aimed to examine whether contemporary patients operated for primary hyperparathyroidism have higher mortality than the general population, and whether mortality in these patients is associated with serum calcium concentration, adenoma weight or multiglandular disease.Patients from a Swedish national cohort consisting of patients registered in the Scandinavian Quality Register for Thyroid, Parathyroid, and Adrenal Surgery 2003-2013, were matched with population controls. The National Patient Register, the Swedish Cause of Death Register, and socioeconomic data were cross-linked. End of follow-up was 10 years after surgery, 31 December 2015, or emigration. Mortality was analysed by standardized mortality ratio, Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, and univariable and multivariable Cox regression. Multiple imputation by chained equations was performed on missing data.After exclusions, there were 5009 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and 14 983 controls. Multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, Charlson Co-morbidity Index, marital status, level of education, disposable income, and period of surgery showed lower mortality in patients than controls (hazard ratio (HR) 0.83, 95 per cent c.i. 0.75 to 0.92). In univariable Cox regression of mortality in patients, serum calcium concentration (mmoles per litre) was associated with mortality (HR 2.20, 1.53 to 3.16). This association remained in multivariable Cox regression after multiple imputation (HR 1.79, 1.19 to 2.70).Mortality was not increased in patients operated for primary hyperparathyroidism compared with controls in a contemporary setting. Preoperative serum calcium concentration might, however, influence survival.

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Authors: M Nilsson, K Ivarsson, M Thier, E Nordenström, A Bergenfelz, M Almquist