Morbidity and Mortality of Patients Who Underwent Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy vs Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

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Safety and efficacy of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) vs neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nCT) for treatment of locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain uncertain given lack of high-level clinical evidence.To compare safety and long-term survival of nCRT followed by minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) with that of nCT followed by MIE for patients with locally advanced ESCC.A prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial that compared safety and efficacy of nCRT vs nCT followed by MIE for patients with locally advanced ESCC. From January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2018, 264 patients with ESCC of clinical stages from cT3 to T4aN0 to 1M0 were enrolled. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis from January 1, 2017, to August 30, 2020.Eligible patients were randomized to the nCRT group (n = 132) or the nCT group (n = 132) by a computer-generated random system. The chemotherapy, based on paclitaxel and cisplatin, was administered to both groups, while 40 Gy of concurrent radiotherapy was added for the nCRT group. At about 6 weeks after neoadjuvant therapy, MIE via thoracoscopy and laparoscopy was performed for the patients in both groups.The primary outcome was 3-year overall survival. Secondary outcomes included postoperative complications, mortality, postoperative pathologic outcome, recurrence-free survival time, and quality of life.Among 264 patients (226 men [85.6%]; mean [SD] age, 61.4 [6.8] years), postoperative morbidity was 47.4% in the nCRT group (54 of 114) and 42.6% in the nCT group (46 of 108), with no significant difference between groups (difference, 4.8%; 95% CI, -8.2% to 17.5%; P = .48). Distribution of the severity of complications was similar between the 2 groups based on Clavien-Dindo classification. The 90-day perioperative mortality rate was 3.5% for the nCRT group (4 of 114) and 2.8% for the nCT group (3 of 108) (P = .94). The R0 resection rates were similar between groups (109 of 112 [97.3%] vs 100 of 104 [96.2%]; P = .92). However, patients in the nCRT group had a higher pathologic complete response (residual tumor, 0%) rate (40 of 112 [35.7%] vs 4 of 104 [3.8%]; P 

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Authors: Hao Wang, Han Tang, Yong Fang, Lijie Tan, Jun Yin, Yaxing Shen, Zhaochong Zeng, Jiangyi Zhu, Yingyong Hou, Ming Du, Jia Jiao, Hongjing Jiang, Lei Gong, Zhigang Li, Jun Liu, Deyao Xie, Wenfeng Li, Changhong Lian, Qiang Zhao, Chun Chen, Bin Zheng, Yongde Liao, Kuo Li, Hecheng Li, Han Wu, Liang Dai, Ke-Neng Chen