Moral injury in a context of trauma.
Moral injury, characterised by guilt, shame and self-condemnation, is conceptualised either as an adjunct to post-traumatic stress disorder or as a new syndrome. Studies of symptoms and potentially morally injurious events have produced a possible definition and informed the design of rating scales. The current challenge remains the design of effective interventions. Because moral injury relates to ethical behaviour, the meaning attached to events and perceptions of the self, moral philosophy and spirituality could contribute to the design of treatments.