MOG-IgG-associated demyelination: focus on atypical features, brain histopathology and concomitant autoimmunity.

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Abstract:

Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) have been demonstrated in patients with optic neuritis (ON), encephalitis and myelitis.To describe the clinical and paraclinical features in patients with MOG-associated demyelination, focusing on unusual cases, brain biopsy and concomitant autoimmunity.A single centre retrospective observational case series, analysing demographic, clinical, laboratory, histopathology and radiological data from MOG- positive patients.We identified 20 adults. The male/female ratio was 1.5. Mean age at onset was 31.6 years and mean disease duration was 7.5 years. The most frequent presentation was myelitis (45%), followed by ON (30%). One case had simultaneous myelitis and ON. Two patients had a cortical syndrome, 1 patient had an encephalopathic presentation and 1 cryptogenic focal epilepsy. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) were found in 3 cases, while 1 patient had an antibody to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Brain biopsy was performed in 2 patients. Relapsing course was identified in 60% of patients. We also discuss 3 cases with atypical features, brain histopathology and concomitant autoimmunity.MOG- associated demyelination represents a new disease entity. Unusual cases are reported, expanding the disease spectrum. Elucidating this further should be the focus of prospective studies.

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