Migraine in transient global amnesia: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
PURPOSE: Although many studies have investigated the relationship between transient global amnesia (TGA) and migraine, to date, no meta-analysis has confirmed the existence and size of their association.Literature search involved MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and PsycINFO. Observational controlled studies including TGA patients (Caplan, Hodges and Warlow) were retrieved. Quality evaluation was based on the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The prevalence of migraine was compared in TGA patients vs. healthy controls (HC), as well as in TGA against TIA individuals. Data from case-control, cross-sectional and cohort studies were pooled separately.Literature search yielded 1178 articles, 12 of which were included in the present meta-analysis. Results from case-control (ten), cohort (one) and cross-sectional (one) studies were compatible with an association between TGA and migraine. The nationwide inpatient cross-sectional study was of lesser value due to its inpatient orientation. The high-quality, population-based, retrospective cohort (158,301 participants per group) determined a higher relative-risk (RR) of TGA for migraine vs. non-migraine individuals [RR = 2.48, 95%confidence-interval (95% CI) = (1.32, 4.87)]. Sensitivity testing based on stricter diagnostic criteria strengthened the estimated association [RR = 3.84, 95% CI = (1.57, 9.38)]. Additionally, pooled data from eight case-control studies (700 TGA, 746 HC) yielded similar results [Odds-Ratio, OR = 2.51, 95% CI = (1.85, 3.41)], with the association mainly driven by the three high-quality studies, rather than the five articles of moderate quality. Finally, pooled findings from four case-control studies of moderate-quality revealed a higher prevalence of migraine among TGA compared to TIA patients [OR = 1.82, 95% CI = (1.22, 2.73)].A significant association between TGA and migraine was established. The underlying connecting mechanism remains undetermined, yet.