Meta-Analysis of Prevalence and Risk Factors for Cognitive Decline and Improvement After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.
Changes to cognition, both decline and improvement, are commonly reported after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). However, previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have missed these subgroups by assessing whole-group-averages for cognitive outcomes. We sought to pool estimates to identify the prevalence of cognitive decline and improvement after TAVI, as well as associated factors for these outcomes. A systematic review identified 15 articles appropriate for meta-analysis. When robust cognitive change definitions were employed, the pooled prevalence of incident cognitive impairment up to 1-, 1 to 6-, and ≥6-months post-TAVI was 7%, 14%, and 12%, respectively. For cognitive improvement, the prevalence from 1 to 6 months and ≥6 months after TAVI was estimated to be 19% and 11%, respectively. Two factors were associated with these cognitive outcomes: (1) using a cerebral embolic protection device was associated with decreased prevalence of cognitive decline up to 1-week post-TAVI; (2) baseline cognitive impairment had a large association with post-TAVI cognitive improvement. In conclusion, cognitive decline and cognitive improvement are experienced by approximately 7% to 19% of patients after TAVI, respectively. Those with the lowest cognitive performance pre-TAVI appear to have the most to gain in terms of cognitive improvement post-TAVI. Identifying further predictive factors for cognitive decline and improvement post-TAVI will facilitate a personalized-medicine approach for cognitive care and prognosis.