Management of A-Frame Tracheal Deformity in Children With Endoscopic Resection Tracheoplasty.

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Tracheal A-frame deformity is a known consequence of tracheostomy that may lead to obstruction after decannulation. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility and success of endoscopic carbon dioxide (CO2 ) laser-assisted tracheoplasty of tracheal A-frame deformity in children.Retrospective case series of symptomatic children with tracheal A-frame deformity with no other site of airway obstruction (2016-2018). All patients underwent CO2 -laser assisted endoscopic resection tracheoplasty.Eight patients (six male) were included with a median age of 15.4 (IQR 12.3-17.9) years. Patients had a median of two previous open airway surgeries (IQR 1-2.5) and all patients had a history of tracheostomy with successful decannulation. Tracheal A-frame deformity presented as dyspnea on exertion for all patients (n = 8, 100%). Obstructive sleep apnea was confirmed for all patients who underwent polysomnography (4/4, 100%). Median interval from decannulation to development of symptoms was 8.7 years (IQR 5.8-9.3). All patients sized with an age-appropriate endotracheal tube despite the deformity. Endoscopic A-frame tracheoplasty was successful for 7/8 (87.5%) patients and was performed with overnight observation for these patients (8/8, 100%). Unilateral A-frame tracheoplasty was performed successfully for five patients (62.5%), bilateral A-frame tracheoplasty was performed successfully for two patients (25.0%), and one patient (12.5%) did not have complete resolution of symptoms after bilateral A-frame tracheoplasty due to multi-level airway obstruction.CO2 laser-assisted tracheoplasty is an innovative endoscopic technique to relieve symptoms of airway obstruction for selected patients with tracheal A-frame deformity although avoiding the morbidity and hospital stay duration associated with tracheal resection.4 Laryngoscope, 131:E719-E723, 2021.

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Authors: Mathieu Bergeron, Hannah Qualls, Alessandro de Alarcon, Michael J Rutter