Lipopolysaccharide induces platelet activation in HIV patients: the role of different viral load patterns.

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This study aimed to assess whether gut-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could affect platelet function in HIV-1 patients with residual viral load.In 23 HIV-1 patients on effective antiretroviral treatment, 10 treatment-naïve HIV-1 subjects and 20 healthy subjects (HS), LPS, zonulin, markers of platelet activation and oxidative stress were evaluated. In vitro, platelets from HS were exposed to plasma from HIV-1-infected treated and untreated patients.Compared with HS, LPS was higher in treated and treatment-naïve subjects with HIV-1 (7.7 ± 2.9, 80.9 ± 13.7 and 75.3 ± 22.6 pg/mL, P 

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