Lateral collateral ligament and anterolateral ligament of the knee – A morphological analysis with orthopedic significance.
The lateral collateral ligament (LCL) is the chief stabilizer of the lateral aspect of the knee to varus forces. Studies have confirmed the function of the anterolateral ligament (ALL), which improves the lateral knee stability by preventing excessive internal tibial rotation. Clinically, a persistent instability following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may be due to damage to the anterolateral structures. The finding has created a novel interest in anterolateral extra-articular operations.This observational, cross-sectional study involved 42 dissected adult knees. The variations in morphology and morphometry of the LCL were identified and classified. The prevalence and the variabilities in the ALL were also noted.The variations in the shape of the LCL were classified into four types: (1) cord, (2) band, (3) mixed, and (4) inverted Y shaped, with a frequency of 69.04, 26.20, 2.38, and 2.38% of specimens, respectively. The cord type measured 50.4 ± 2.7 mm in length and 5 ± 0.9 mm in width. In comparison, the band type measured 50.1 ± 4.2 mm in length and 9 ± 1.6 mm in width. The ALL was identified in four (9%) of the specimens with a mean length of 35 ± 0.9 mm. Two types of ALL were observed, membranous wideband and distinct cord-like ALL.The anatomy of the lateral structures of the knee is inconsistent. The study has attempted to classify the different shapes of the LCL along with the frequency and prevalence of the ALL. Orthopedic surgeons and radiologists must note the LCL morphology and prevalence of the ALL due to their clinical implications.