Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in the COVID-19 era: An expected new entity.
Information on the recently COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) entity is scarce. We describe eight CAPA patients, compare them to colonised ICU patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and review the published literature from Western countries.Prospective study (March to May, 2020) that included all COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary hospital. Modified AspICU and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria were used.CAPA was diagnosed in eight patients (3.3% of 239 ICU patients). Mostly affected non-immunocompromised patients (75%) with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) receiving corticosteroids. Diagnosis was established after a median of 15 days under mechanical ventilation. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in two patients with positive Aspergillus fumigatus cultures and galactomannan (GM) index. Serum GM was positive in 4/8 (50%). Thoracic CT-scan findings fulfilled EORTC/MSG criteria in one case. Isavuconazole was used in 4/8 cases. CAPA-related mortality was 100% (8/8). Compared with colonised patients, CAPA subjects were administered tocilizumab more often (100% vs. 40%, p=0.04), underwent longer courses of antibacterial therapy (13 vs. 5 days, p=0.008), and had a higher all-cause mortality (100% vs. 40%, p=0.04). We reviewed 96 similar cases from recent publications: 59 probable CAPA (also putative according modified AspICU), 56 putative cases and 13 colonisations according AspICU algorithm; according EORTC/MSG six proven and two probable. Overall, mortality in the reviewed series was 56.3%.CAPA must be considered a serious and potentially life-threatening complication in patients with severe COVID-19 receiving immunosuppressive treatment.