Intracranial Hemorrhage After Endovascular Repair of Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm.
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a rare but devastating complication of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair with fenestrated/branched endograft (f/bEVAR). The cerebrospinal fluid drainage (CSFD) is considered one of the leading causes; however, other possible concomitant factors have not been individualized yet. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the pattern of ICH events after f/bEVAR for TAAA and to identify possible associated factors.All f/bEVAR procedures for TAAA performed in a single academic center from 2012 to 2020 were evaluated. ICH was assessed by cerebral computed tomography if neurological symptoms arose. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative characteristics were analyzed in order to identify possible factors associated.A total of 135 f/bEVAR were performed for 72 (53%) type I, II, III and 63 (47%) type IV TAAA; 74 (55%) were staged procedures, 101 (73%) required CSFD, and 24 (18%) were performed urgently. The overall 30-day mortality was 8% (5% in elective cases); spinal-cord ischemia occurred in 11(8%) and ICH in 8 (6%) patients. All ICH occurred in patients with CSFD. ICH occurred intraoperatively in 1 case, inter-stage in 4 and after F/BEVAR completion in 3, after a median of 6 days the completion stage. Three (38%) of 8 patients with ICH died at 30 days and ICH was associated with 30-day mortality: odds ratio (OR) 13.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3-76, p=0.01. The analysis of the perioperative characteristics identified platelet reduction >60% (OR 11, 95% CI 1.6-77, p=0.03), chronic kidney disease (16% vs 0%, p=0.002), and total volume of liquor drained >50 mL (OR 8.1, 95% CI 1.1-69, p=0.03) as associated with ICH.Current findings may suggest that ICH is a potential lethal complication of the endovascular treatment for TAAAs and it mainly occurs in patients with CSFD. High-volume liquor drainage, platelet reduction, and chronic kidney disease seems increase significantly the risk of ICH and should be considered during the perioperative period and for further studies.
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Authors: Rodolfo Pini, Gianluca Faggioli, Cecilia Fenelli, Enrico Gallitto, Chiara Mascoli, Paolo Spath, Mauro Gargiulo