Incidence, Management, Immediate and Long-Term Outcome of Guidewire and Device Related Grade III Coronary Perforations (From G3CAP – Cardiogroup VI registry).
Ellis grade III coronary artery perforations (G3-CAP) remain a life-threatening complication of PCI, with high morbidity and mortality and lack of consensus regarding optimal treatment strategies. We reviewed all PCIs performed in 10 European centers from 1993 to 2019 recording all G3CAP along with management strategies, in-hospital and long-term outcome according to Device-related (DP) and Guidewire-related (WP) perforations. Among 106,592 PCI (including 7,773 chronic total occlusions (CTO)), G3-CAP occurred in 311 patients (0.29%). DP occurred in 194 cases (62.4%), more commonly in proximal segments (73.2%) and frequently secondary to balloon dilatation (66.0%). WP arose in 117 patients (37.6%) with CTO guidewires involved in 61.3% of cases. Overall sealing success rate was 90.7% and usually required multiple maneuvers (80.4%). The most commonly adopted strategies to obtain haemostasis were prolonged balloon inflation (73.2%) with covered stent implantation (64.4%) in the DP group, and prolonged balloon inflation (53.8%) with coil embolization (41%) in the WP group. Procedural or in-hospital events arose in 38.2% of cases: mortality was higher after DP (7.2% vs 2.6%, p=0.05) and acute stent thrombosis 3-fold higher (3.1% vs 0.9%, p=0.19). At clinical follow-up, median two years, a major cardiovascular event occurred in one-third of cases (all-cause mortality 8.2% and 7.1% respectively, without differences between groups). In conclusion, although rare and despite improved rates of adequate perforation sealing G3-CAP cause significant adverse events. DP and WP result in different patterns of G3-CAP and management strategies should be based on this classification.