Importance of Intestinal Environment and Cellular Plasticity of Islets in the Development of Postpancreatectomy Diabetes.

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To elucidate the pathogenesis of postpancreatectomy diabetes mellitus (PPDM).Forty-eight patients without diabetes undergoing either pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) (n = 20) or distal pancreatectomy (DP) (n = 28) were included. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed every 6 months. Microbiome composition and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces were examined before and 6 months after surgery. The association of histological characteristics of the resected pancreas with PPDM was examined.During follow-up (median 3.19 years), 2 of 20 PD patients and 16 of 28 DP patients developed PPDM. Proteobacteria relative abundance, plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and fecal butyrate levels increased only after PD. Postsurgical butyrate levels were correlated with postsurgical GLP-1 levels. With no significant difference in the volume of the resected pancreas between the surgical procedures, both β-cell and α-cell areas in the resected pancreas were significantly higher in DP patients than in PD patients. In DP patients, the progressors to diabetes showed preexisting insulin resistance compared with nonprogressors, and both increased α- and β-cell areas were predictors of PPDM. Furthermore, in DP patients, α-cell and β-cell areas were associated with ALDH1A3 expression in islets.We postulate that a greater removal of β-cells contributes to the development of PPDM after DP. Islet expansion along with preexisting insulin resistance is associated with high cellular plasticity, which may predict the development of PPDM after DP. In contrast, PD is associated with alterations of gut microbiome and increases in SCFA production and GLP-1 secretion, possibly protecting against PPDM development.

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Authors: Tatsuya Fukuda, Ryotaro Bouchi, Takato Takeuchi, Kikuko Amo-Shiinoki, Atsushi Kudo, Shinji Tanaka, Minoru Tanabe, Takumi Akashi, Kazuhiro Hirayama, Toshitaka Odamaki, Miki Igarashi, Ikuo Kimura, Katsuya Tanabe, Yukio Tanizawa, Tetsuya Yamada, Yoshihiro Ogawa