Impact of renal replacement therapies on olfactory ability: results of a cross-sectional case control study.
Several studies have suggested that chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with olfactory impairment. However, to date, the impact of renal replacement therapies has only been partly defined.We tested the olfactory function of 235 participants [50 kidney transplant recipients (KT), 49 hemodialyzed patients (HD), 30 peritoneal dialysis patients (PD), 51 patients with CKD not on dialysis (ND-CKD) and 55 healthy subjects (HS)] by the Sniffin’ Sticks test (Burghardt®, Wedel, Germany), including the sub-tests for the determination of odor threshold (T), odor discrimination (D), odor identification (I). Each subtest result was then summed up to a composite score, known as the TDI score. The Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT22), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test and olfactory function Visual Analogue Scale (ofVAS) were also performed.The mean TDI score was significantly lower (and consistent with hyposmia), in HD, PD and ND-CKD compared to HS and KT (ANOVA p
Authors: Valentina Iacono, Gianmarco Lombardi, Giancarlo Ottaviano, Giovanni Gambaro, Gianluigi Zaza