Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Follow-Up Study: newborn anthropometrics and childhood glucose metabolism.
We aimed to examine associations of newborn anthropometric measures with childhood glucose metabolism with the hypothesis that greater newborn birthweight, adiposity and cord C-peptide are associated with higher childhood glucose levels and lower insulin sensitivity.Data from the international, multi-ethnic, population-based Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study and the HAPO Follow-Up Study were used. The analytic cohort included 4155 children (mean age [SD], 11.4 [1.2] years; 51.0% male). Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of primary predictors, birthweight, newborn sum of skinfolds (SSF) and cord C-peptide, from HAPO with continuous child glucose outcomes from the HAPO Follow-Up Study.In an initial model that included family history of diabetes and maternal BMI during pregnancy, birthweight and SSF demonstrated a significant, inverse association with 30 min and 1 h plasma glucose levels. In the primary model, which included further adjustment for maternal sum of glucose z scores from an oral glucose tolerance test during pregnancy, the associations were strengthened, and birthweight and SSF were inversely associated with fasting, 30 min, 1 h and 2 h plasma glucose levels. Birthweight and SSF were also associated with higher insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) (β = 1.388; 95% CI 0.870, 1.906; p