Hormone replacement therapy and development of new asthma.

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Hormone replacement therapy is prescribed to millions of women worldwide. Previous studies have suggested that hormone replacement therapy has both protective and harmful effects in asthma.Is hormone replacement therapy in menopause associated with new development of asthma?We undertook a nested case-control study based on the Danish registers from June 1, 1995 to December 31, 2018. A diagnosis of asthma was defined as two redeemed prescriptions of inhaled corticosteroids within two years. Hormone replacement therapy was defined as two redeemed prescriptions of female sex hormones, within 6 months. Data were analysed using a conditional logistic regression model.We included 34 533 women with asthma vs. 345 116 women without asthma between 40 and 65 years of age. In a multivariable analysis adjusted for age, household income and educational level, active hormone replacement therapy resulted in a hazard ratio of 1.63 (95%CI 1.55 to 1.71, p<0.001) of new asthma development. Women with asthma who terminated hormone replacement therapy were likely to subsequently discontinue their asthma treatment (hazard ratio 2.12 95%CI 1.94 to 2.33, p<0.001).Hormone replacement therapy seemingly plays a role in the development of asthma in mature women. Clinicians prescribing hormone replacement therapy and women receiving hormone replacement therapy should be aware that new airway symptoms can develop, and discontinuation of hormone replacement therapy should be considered.

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Authors: Erik Soeren Halvard Hansen, Kristian Aasbjerg, Amalie Lykkemark Moeller, Elisabeth Juul Gade, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Vibeke Backer