High Mortality and Venous Thromboembolism Risk Following Major Penetrating Abdominal Venous Injuries.

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Penetrating injuries to the inferior vena cava (IVC) and/or iliac veins are a source of hemorrhage but may also predispose patients to venous thromboembolism (VTE). We sought to determine the relationship between iliocaval injury, VTE and mortality.The National Trauma Data Bank was queried for penetrating abdominal trauma from 2015-2017. Univariate analyses compared baseline characteristics and outcomes based on presence of iliocaval injury. Multivariable analyses determined the effect of iliocaval injury on VTE and mortality.Of 9,974 patients with penetrating abdominal trauma, 329 had iliocaval injury (3.3%). Iliocaval injury patients were more likely to have a firearm mechanism (83% vs. 43%, P<0.001), concurrent head (P=0.036), spinal cord (P<0.001), and pelvic injuries (P<0.001), and higher total injury severity score (median 20 vs. 8.0, P<0.001). They were more likely to undergo 24-hour hemorrhage control surgery (69% vs. 17%, P<0.001), but less likely to receive VTE chemoprophylaxis during admission (64% vs. 68%, P=0.04). Of patients undergoing iliocaval surgery, 64% underwent repair, 26% ligation, and 10% unknown. Iliocaval injury patients had higher rates of VTE (12% vs. 2%), 24-hour mortality (23% vs. 2.0%) and in-hospital mortality (33% vs. 3.4%) (P<0.001 for all). VTE rates were similar following repair (14%) and ligation (17%). Iliocaval injury patients also had higher rates of cardiac complications (10.3% vs. 1.4%), acute kidney injury (8.2% vs. 1.3%), extremity compartment syndrome (4.0 vs. 0.2%), and unplanned return to OR (7.9% vs. 2.5%) (P<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, iliocaval injury was independently associated with risk of VTE (OR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.29-3.48; P = 0.003), and in-hospital mortality (OR = 9.61; 95% CI, 4.96-18.64; P < 0.001).Iliocaval injuries occur in <5% of penetrating abdominal trauma but are associated with more severe injury patterns and high mortality rates. Regardless of repair type, survivors should be considered high risk for developing VTE.

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Authors: Maha H Haqqani, Scott R Levin, Jeffrey A Kalish, Tejal S Brahmbhatt, Aaron P Richman, Jeffrey J Siracuse, Alik Farber, Douglas W Jones